Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes

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Homo sapiens
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In mitotic prophase, the action of the condensin II complex enables initial chromosome condensation.

The condensin II complex subunit NCAPD3 binds monomethylated histone H4 (H4K20me1), thereby associating with chromatin (Liu et al. 2010). Binding of the condensin II complex to chromatin is partially controlled by the presence of RB1 (Longworth et al. 2008).

Two mechanisms contribute to the accumulation of H4K20me1 at mitotic entry. First, the activity of SETD8 histone methyltransferase peaks at G2/M transition (Nishioka et al. 2002, Rice et al. 2002, Wu et al. 2010). Second, the complex of CDK1 and cyclin B1 (CDK1:CCNB1) phosphorylates PHF8 histone demethylase at the start of mitosis, removing it from chromatin (Liu et al. 2010).

Condensin II complex needs to be phosphorylated by the CDK1:CCNB1 complex, and then phosphorylated by PLK1, in order to efficiently condense prophase chromosomes (Abe et al. 2011).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
20966048 Dynamic regulation of the PR-Set7 histone methyltransferase is required for normal cell cycle progression

Wu, S, Wang, W, Kong, X, Congdon, LM, Yokomori, K, Kirschner, MW, Rice, JC

Genes Dev. 2010
12086618 PR-Set7 is a nucleosome-specific methyltransferase that modifies lysine 20 of histone H4 and is associated with silent chromatin

Nishioka, K, Rice, JC, Sarma, K, Erdjument-Bromage, H, Werner, J, Wang, Y, Chuikov, S, Valenzuela, P, Tempst, P, Steward, R, Lis, JT, Allis, CD, Reinberg, D

Mol. Cell 2002
20622854 PHF8 mediates histone H4 lysine 20 demethylation events involved in cell cycle progression

Liu, W, Tanasa, B, Tyurina, OV, Zhou, TY, Gassmann, R, Liu, WT, Ohgi, KA, Benner, C, Garcia-Bassets, I, Aggarwal, AK, Desai, A, Dorrestein, PC, Glass, CK, Rosenfeld, MG

Nature 2010
21498573 The initial phase of chromosome condensation requires Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of the CAP-D3 subunit of condensin II

Abe, S, Nagasaka, K, Hirayama, Y, Kozuka-Hata, H, Oyama, M, Aoyagi, Y, Obuse, C, Hirota, T

Genes Dev. 2011
12208845 Mitotic-specific methylation of histone H4 Lys 20 follows increased PR-Set7 expression and its localization to mitotic chromosomes

Rice, JC, Nishioka, K, Sarma, K, Steward, R, Reinberg, D, Allis, CD

Genes Dev. 2002
18367646 RBF1 promotes chromatin condensation through a conserved interaction with the Condensin II protein dCAP-D3

Longworth, MS, Herr, A, Ji, JY, Dyson, NJ

Genes Dev 2008
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