BCL10 and MALT1 proteins form high molecular weight oligomers and only these oligomeric forms can activate IKK in vitro (Sun et al. 2004). BCL10 proteins form homo-oligomers through CARD-CARD interactions whereas in MALT1 the tandem Ig-like domains naturally form oligomers with a tendency towards dimers and tetramers (Dong et al. 2006, Quiu & Dhe-Paganon 2011). These CBM oligomers provides the molecular platform, which can facilitate dimerization or serve as scaffolds on which proteases and kinases involved in NF-kB activation are assembled and activated.