IRE1alpha activates chaperones

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-381070
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Pathway
Species
Homo sapiens
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IRE1-alpha is a single-pass transmembrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The C-terminus of IRE1-alpha is located in the cytosol; the N-terminus is located in the ER lumen. In unstressed cells IRE1-alpha exists in an inactive heterodimeric complex with BiP such that BiP in the ER lumen binds the N-terminal region of IRE1-alpha. Upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, BiP binds the unfolded protein and the IRE1-alpha:BiP complex dissociates. The dissociated IRE1-alpha then forms homodimers. Initially the luminal N-terminal regions pair. This is followed by trans-autophosphorylation of IRE1-alpha at Ser724 in the cytosolic C-terminal region. The phosphorylation causes a conformational change that allows the dimer to bind ADP, causing a further conformational change to yield back-to-back pairing of the cytosolic C-terminal regions of IRE1-alpha. The fully paired IRE1-alpha homodimer has endoribonuclease activity and cleaves the mRNA encoding Xbp-1. A 26 residue polyribonucleotide is released and the 5' and 3' fragments of the original Xbp-1 mRNA are rejoined. The spliced Xbp-1 message encodes Xbp-1 (S), a potent activator of transcription. Xbp-1 (S) together with the ubiquitous transcription factor NF-Y bind the ER Stress Responsive Element (ERSE) in a number of genes encoding chaperones. Recent data suggest that the IRE1-alpha homodimer can also cleave specific subsets of mRNAs, including the insulin (INS) mRNA in pancreatic beta cells.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
18038217 Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses

Schröder, M

Cell Mol Life Sci 2008
18048764 The role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus

Eizirik, DL, Cardozo, AK, Cnop, M

Endocr Rev 2008
18436705 The unfolded protein response: a pathway that links insulin demand with beta-cell failure and diabetes

Scheuner, D, Kaufman, RJ

Endocr Rev 2008
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