The alternate method required for the initial EPH receptor:ephrin (EPH:EFN) adhesion into repulsion is by RAC-dependent endocytosis, an atypical endocytic mechanism by which the EPH:EFN complex and surrounding plasma membrane are internalized into one cell. Proto-oncogene vavs (VAVs) provide a molecular link between activated EPHs and RAC-dependent endocytosis. Upon the activation of EPH receptor, VAV proteins are recruited to the intracellular domain of EPHs and become transiently activated. Cowan et al. showed that VAV2 interacts with either EPHA4 or EPHB2, indicating that VAV can bind to either EPHA or EPHB subclass receptors. Autophosphorylated juxta-membrane tyrosines (Y596 and Y602 of human EPHA4) provide docking sites for VAV proteins (Cowan et al. 2007).