Despite high-affinity multimeric interaction between EPHs and ephrins (EFNs), the cellular response to EPH-EFN engagement is usually repulsion between the two cells and signal termination. These repulsive responses induce an EPH receptor-expressing cell to retract from an ephrin-expressing cell after establishing initial contact. The repulsive responses mediated by EPH receptors in the growth cone at the leading edge of extending axons and in axonal collateral branches contribute to the formation of selective neuronal connections. It is unclear how high affinity trans-cellular interactions between EPHs and ephrins are broken to convert adhesion into repulsion. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for the repulsion of EPH-EFN bearing cells: the first one involves regulated cleavage of ephrin ligands or EPH receptors by transmembrane proteases following cell-cell contact, while the second one is rapid endocytosis of whole EPH:EFN complexes during the retraction of the interacting cells or neuronal growth cones (Egea & Klein 2007, Janes et al. 2005). RAC also plays an essential role during growth cone collapse by promoting actin polymerization that drives membrane internalization by endocytosis (Marston et al. 2003).