Calcitonin-like ligand receptors

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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The calcitonin peptide family comprises calcitonin, amylin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM) and intermedin (AM2). Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid peptide, involved in bone homeostasis (Sexton PM et al, 1999). Amylin is a product of the islet beta-cell (Cooper GJ et al, 1987), along with insulin and probably has a hormonal role in the regulation of nutrient intake (Young A and Denaro M, 1998). Adrenomedullin (AM) is a ubiquitously expressed peptide initially isolated from phaechromocytoma (a tumour of the adrenal medulla) (Kitamura K et al, 1993). Both AM and AM2 (Takei Y et al, 2004) belong to a family of calcitonin-related peptide hormones important for regulating diverse physiologic functions and the chemical composition of fluids and tissues.
The receptor family for these peptides consists of two class B GPCRs, the calcitonin receptor (CT) and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL) (Poyner DR er al, 2002). Whilst the receptor for calcitonin is a conventional class B GPCR, the receptors for CGRP, AM and amylin require additional proteins, called the receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). There are three RAMPs in mammals; they interact with the CT receptor to convert it to receptors for amylin. For CGRP and AM, the related CL interacts with RAMP1 to give a CGRP receptor and RAMP2 or 3 to give AM receptors. CL by itself will bind no known endogenous ligand.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
10519914 Calcitonin

Findlay, DM, Martin, TJ, Sexton, PM

Curr Med Chem 1999
9646295 Roles of amylin in diabetes and in regulation of nutrient load

Denaro, M, Young, A

Nutrition 1998
8387282 Adrenomedullin: a novel hypotensive peptide isolated from human pheochromocytoma

Eto, T, Kitamura, K, Kangawa, K, Kawamoto, M, Matsuo, H, Ichiki, Y, Nakamura, S

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993
14706825 Identification of novel adrenomedullin in mammals: a potent cardiovascular and renal regulator

Miyano, S, Ogoshi, M, Bannai, H, Kawahara, T, Inoue, K, Takei, Y

FEBS Lett 2004
12037140 International Union of Pharmacology. XXXII. The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors

Fischer, JA, Smith, DM, Poyner, DR, Foord, SM, Quirion, R, Muff, R, Born, W, Marshall, I, Sexton, PM

Pharmacol Rev 2002
3317417 Purification and characterization of a peptide from amyloid-rich pancreases of type 2 diabetic patients

Clark, A, Sim, RB, Turner, RC, Willis, AC, Cooper, GJ, Reid, KB

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987
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