phosphatidylcholine + ceramide <=> sphingomyelin + diacylglycerol [SGMS2]

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-429786
Type
Reaction [transition]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
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SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) catalyzes the reversible reaction of phosphatidylcholine and ceramide to form sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol. Most SGMS2 actitiy is associated with the plasma membrane, although active enzyme is also present in the Golgi apparatus (Tafesse et al. 2007; Villani et al. 2008; Ding et al. 2008). Phosphatidylcholine was identified as the source of the phosphocholine moiety donated to ceramide in this reaction, in studies of the mouse enzyme in the 1970s (Diringer et al. 1972; Ullman and Radin 1974). Palmitoylation of at least two cysteine residues near the carboxy terminus of SGMS2 appears to be required for association of the protein with the plasma membrane (Tani and Kuge 2009). SGMS2 is widely expressed in the body and while studies of cultured cells indicate that this is a minor source of cellular sphingomyelin, blockage of SGMS2 activity inhibits cell growth (Huitema et al. 2004; Tafesse et al. 2007).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
4339164 Evidence for a new biosynthetic pathway of sphingomyelin in SV 40 transformed mouse cells

Diringer, H, Marggraf, WD, Koch, MA, Anderer, FA

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1972
4817756 The enzymatic formation of sphingomyelin from ceramide and lecithin in mouse liver

Ullman, MD, Radin, NS

J Biol Chem 1974
17449912 Both sphingomyelin synthases SMS1 and SMS2 are required for sphingomyelin homeostasis and growth in human HeLa cells

Tafesse, FG, Huitema, K, Hermansson, M, van der Poel, S, van den Dikkenberg, J, Uphoff, A, Somerharju, P, Holthuis, JC

J Biol Chem 2007
19233134 Sphingomyelin synthase 2 is palmitoylated at the COOH-terminal tail, which is involved in its localization in plasma membranes

Tani, M, Kuge, O

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009
17982138 SMS overexpression and knockdown: impact on cellular sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol metabolism, and cell apoptosis

Ding, T, Li, Z, Hailemariam, T, Mukherjee, S, Maxfield, FR, Wu, MP, Jiang, XC

J Lipid Res 2008
14685263 Identification of a family of animal sphingomyelin synthases

Huitema, K, van den Dikkenberg, J, Brouwers, JF, Holthuis, JC

EMBO J 2004
Participants
Participant Of
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
sphingomyelin synthase activity of 2xPalmC-SGMS2 [plasma membrane]
Physical Entity
Activity
Orthologous Events
Authored
Reviewed
Created