Phosphorylated Shc recruits Grb2 and Gab2, probably by binding to Grb2 in the Grb2:Gab2 complex. Gab2 associates with Grb2, Shc, Shp2 and the p85 subunit of PI3K (Gu et al. 1998). The association of Grb2 with Gab2 has been suggested to be constitutive (Gu et al. 2000, Kong et al. 2003, Harkiolaki et al. 2009), so Gab2 may be recruited to Shc1 with Grb2. Alternatively, Gab2 has been suggested to associate constitutively with Shc (Kong et al 2003). In either case, the result is a complex of Shc:Grb2:Gab2. Gab2 binding to p85 (Gu et al. 1998) links Shc1 to PI3K activity and subsequent activation of kinases such as Akt (Gu et al. 2000).