GLI proteins are phosphorylated

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-5635841
Type
Reaction [BlackBoxEvent]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
Summation

Hh signaling induces phosphorylation of full-length GLI that coincides with its nuclear localization and transcription factor activity (Humke et al, 2010; reviewed in Hui and Angers, 2011). Although this is depicted as occuring in the nucleus, the identity and location of the kinase(s) is not definitively known, nor is the ordering of the phosphorylation and translocation events (Wen et al, 2010; Humke et al, 2010; reviewed in Hui and Angers, 2011). Both cytoplasmic/ciliary and nuclear full-length GLI proteins are likely subject to phosphorylation, and the interaction between the numerous regulatory events is not clear. CDC2L1 was identified as a kinase that positively regulates Hh pathway activity, and it was shown to bind SUFU and promote the dissociation of the GLI1:SUFU complex in a kinase-dependent manner in mouse, but it has not been implicated in the phosphorylation of the GLI transcription factors themselves (Evangelista et al, 2008). ULK3 is another kinase that positively regulates Hh signaling and has been proposed to phosphorylate GLI proteins to promote their transcriptional activity (Maloverjan et al, 2010a; Maloverjan et al, 2010b; reviewed in Maloverjan and Piirsoo, 2012). DYRK family kinases are also implicated in the post-transcriptional regulation of the GLI proteins in both a positive and a negative manner (Mao et al, 2002; Lauth et al, 2010; Varjosalo et al, 2008).
Once in the nucleus, phosphorylated GLI transcription factors bind to promoters of Hh-responsive genes such as PTCH1, PTCH2, GLI1 and HHIP to activate transcription (Vokes et al, 2007; Vokes et al 2007; Lee et al, 2010; reviewed in Briscoe and Therond, 2013). The full-length transcriptionally active GLI proteins are labile and subject to SPOP-dependent proteolysis (Chen et al, 2009; Zhang et al, 2009; Wen et al, 2010).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
21801010 Gli proteins in development and disease Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 2011
18827223 Kinome siRNA screen identifies regulators of ciliogenesis and hedgehog signal transduction Sci Signal 2008
20154143 Kinetics of hedgehog-dependent full-length Gli3 accumulation in primary cilia and subsequent degradation Mol. Cell. Biol. 2010
22391301 Mammalian homologues of Drosophila fused kinase Vitam. Horm. 2012
19878745 Identification of a novel serine/threonine kinase ULK3 as a positive regulator of Hedgehog pathway Exp. Cell Res. 2010
20460306 Hedgehog pathway-regulated gene networks in cerebellum development and tumorigenesis Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010
19955409 Multiple Ser/Thr-rich degrons mediate the degradation of Ci/Gli by the Cul3-HIB/SPOP E3 ubiquitin ligase Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009
12138125 Regulation of Gli1 transcriptional activity in the nucleus by Dyrk1 J. Biol. Chem. 2002
19684112 Cilium-independent regulation of Gli protein function by Sufu in Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved Genes Dev. 2009
20512148 DYRK1B-dependent autocrine-to-paracrine shift of Hedgehog signaling by mutant RAS Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2010
17442700 Genomic characterization of Gli-activator targets in sonic hedgehog-mediated neural patterning Development 2007
20643644 Dual function of UNC-51-like kinase 3 (Ulk3) in the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway J. Biol. Chem. 2010
18832070 A genome-scale analysis of the cis-regulatory circuitry underlying sonic hedgehog-mediated patterning of the mammalian limb Genes Dev. 2008
20360384 The output of Hedgehog signaling is controlled by the dynamic association between Suppressor of Fused and the Gli proteins Genes Dev. 2010
18455992 Application of active and kinase-deficient kinome collection for identification of kinases regulating hedgehog signaling Cell 2008
Participants
Participant Of
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
protein serine/threonine kinase activity of unknown kinase [nucleoplasm]
Physical Entity
Activity