Metallothioneins bind metals

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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Metallothioneins are highly conserved, cysteine-rich proteins that bind metals via thiolate bonds (recent general reviews in Capdevila et al. 2012, Blindauer et al. 2014, reviews of mammalian metallothioneins in Miles et al. 2000, Maret 2011, Vasak and Meloni 2011, Thirumoorthy et al. 2001, Babula et al. 2012). Mammals contain 4 general metallothionein isoforms (MT1,2,3,4). The MT1 isoform has radiated in primates to 8 or 9 functional proteins (depending on classification of MT1L). Each mammalian metallothionein binds a total of 7 divalent metal ions in two clusters, the alpha and beta clusters. Though the functions of metallothioneins have not been fully elucidated, they appear to participate in detoxifying heavy metals (reviewed in Sharma et al. 2013), storing and transporting zinc, and redox biochemistry. Metallothioneins interact with many other cellular proteins, with most interactions involving proteins of the central nervous system (reviewed in Atrian and Capdevila 2013).
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
21599891 A review of metallothionein isoforms and their role in pathophysiology

Chatterjee, M, Manisenthil Kumar, K, Shyam Sunder, A, Senthil Kumar, M, Ganesh, G, Thirumoorthy, N

World J Surg Oncol 2011
25436572 Metallothionein-protein interactions

Atrian, S, Capdevila, M

Biomol Concepts 2013
21647776 Chemistry and biology of mammalian metallothioneins

Meloni, G, Vašák, M

J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2011
21647775 Redox biochemistry of mammalian metallothioneins

Maret, W

J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2011
  Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells

Blindauer, CA

10755665 Induction, regulation, degradation, and biological significance of mammalian metallothioneins

Rodilla, V, Beattie, JH, Hawksworth, GM, Miles, AT

Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2000
22791193 Mammalian metallothioneins: properties and functions

Eckschlager, T, Stiborova, M, Masarik, M, Adam, V, Provaznik, I, Hubalek, J, Babula, P, Trnkova, L, Skutkova, H, Kizek, R

Metallomics 2012
23620664 Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

Nel, W, Rais, A, Ebadi, M, Sandhu, R, Sharma, S

Int J Nanomedicine 2013
State-of-the-art of metallothioneins at the beginning of the 21st century

Atrian, S, Palacios, Ò, Bofill, R, Capdevila, M

Coor. Chem. Reviews 2012
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