MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
ERK1/ERK2 pathway
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The extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote differentiation, proliferation, cell motility, cell survivial, metabolism and transcription, among others (reviewed in Roskoski, 2012b; McKay and Morrison, 2007; Raman et al, 2007). In the classical pathway, MAPK1/3 activation is triggered by the GEF-mediated activation of RAS at the plasma membrane, leading to the activation of the RAF MAP3Ks (reviewed in McKay and Morrison, 2007; Matallanas et al, 2011; Wellbrock et al, 2004). However, many physiological and pathological stimuli have been found to activate MAPK1/3 independently of RAF and RAS, acting instead through MAP3Ks such as MOS, TPL2 and AMPK (Dawson et al, 2008; Wang et al, 2009; Kuriakose et al, 2014; Awane et al, 1999). Activated MAPK1/3 phosphorylate numerous targets in both the nucleus and cytoplasm (reviewed in Yoon and Seger, 2006; Roskoski 2012b).

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