Cargo concentration in the ER

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-5694530
Type
Pathway
Species
Homo sapiens
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
Summation

Computational analysis suggests that ~25% of the proteome may be exported from the ER in human cells (Kanapin et al, 2003). These cargo need to be recognized and concentrated into COPII vesicles, which range in size from 60-90 nm, and which move cargo from the ER to the ERGIC in mammalian cells (reviewed in Lord et al, 2013; Szul and Sztul, 2011). Recognition of transmembrane cargo is mediated by interaction with one of the 4 isoforms of SEC24, a component of the inner COPII coat (Miller et al, 2002; Miller et al, 2003; Mossessova et al, 2003; Mancias and Goldberg, 2008). Soluble cargo in the ER lumen is concentrated into COPII vesicles through interaction with a receptor of the ERGIC-53 family, the p24 family or the ERV family. Each of these families of transmembrane receptors interact with cargo through their lumenal domains and with components of the COPII coat with their cytoplasmic domains and are packaged into the COPII vesicle along with the cargo. The receptors are subsequently recycled to the ER in COPI vesicles through retrograde traffic (reviewed in Dancourt and Barlowe, 2010). Packaging of large cargo such as fibrillar collagen depends on the transmembrane accessory factors MIA3 (also known as TANGO1) and CTAGE5. Like the ERGIC, p24 and ERV cargo receptors, MIA3 and CTAGE5 interact both with the collagen cargo and with components of the COPII coat. Unlike the other cargo receptors, however, MIA3 and CTAGE5 are not loaded into the vesicle but remain in the ER membrane (reviewed in Malhotra and Erlmann, 2011; Malhotra et al, 2015).

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