In global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), the DNA damage is recognized by two protein complexes. The first complex consists of XPC, RAD23A or RAD23B, and CETN2. This complex probes the DNA helix and recognizes damage that disrupts normal Watson-Crick base pairing, which results in binding of the XPC:RAD23:CETN2 complex to the undamaged DNA strand. The second complex is a ubiquitin ligase UV-DDB that consists of DDB2, DDB1, CUL4A or CUL4B and RBX1. The UV-DDB complex is necessary for the recognition of UV-induced DNA damage and may contribute to the retention of the XPC:RAD23:CETN2 complex at the DNA damage site. The UV-DDB complex binds the damaged DNA strand (Fitch et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2004, Moser et al. 2005, Camenisch et al. 2009, Oh et al. 2011).