Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF

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R-HSA-6802955
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Pathway
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Homo sapiens
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While BRAF-specific inhibitors inhibit MAPK/ERK activation in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutant, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling has been observed after treatment of cells with inhibitor in the presence of WT BRAF (Wan et al, 2004; Garnett et al, 2005; Heidorn et al, 2010; Hazivassiliou et al, 2010; Poulikakos et al, 2010). This paradoxical ERK activation is also seen in cells expressing kinase-dead or impaired versions of BRAF such as D594V, which occur with low frequency in some cancers (Wan et al, 2004; Heidorn et al, 2010). Unlike BRAF V600E, which occurs exclusively of activating RAS mutations, kinase-impaired versions of BRAF are coincident with RAS mutations in human cancers, and indeed, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling in the presence of inactive BRAF is enhanced in the presence of oncogenic RAS (Heidorn et al, 2010; reviewed in Holderfield et al, 2014). Although the details remain to be worked out, paradoxical ERK activation in the presence of inactive BRAF appears to rely on enhanced dimerization with and transactivation of CRAF (Heidorn et al, 2010; Hazivassiliou et al, 2010; Poulikakos et al, 2010; Roring et al, 2012; Rajakulendran et al, 2009; Holderfield et al, 2013; Freeman et al, 2013; reviewed in Roskoski, 2010; Samatar and Poulikakos, 2014; Lavoie and Therrien, 2015).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19727074 A dimerization-dependent mechanism drives RAF catalytic activation

Rajakulendran, T, Sahmi, M, Lefrancois, M, Sicheri, F, Therrien, M

Nature 2009
25907612 Regulation of RAF protein kinases in ERK signalling

Lavoie, H, Therrien, M

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2015
24957944 Targeting RAF kinases for cancer therapy: BRAF-mutated melanoma and beyond

Holderfield, M, Deuker, MM, McCormick, F, McMahon, M

Nat. Rev. Cancer 2014
23352452 Effects of Raf dimerization and its inhibition on normal and disease-associated Raf signaling

Freeman, AK, Ritt, DA, Morrison, DK

Mol. Cell 2013
20141835 Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF

Heidorn, SJ, Milagre, C, Whittaker, S, Nourry, A, Niculescu-Duvas, I, Dhomen, N, Hussain, J, Reis-Filho, JS, Springer, CJ, Pritchard, C, Marais, R

Cell 2010
16364920 Wild-type and mutant B-RAF activate C-RAF through distinct mechanisms involving heterodimerization

Garnett, MJ, Rana, S, Paterson, H, Barford, D, Marais, R

Mol. Cell 2005
25435214 Targeting RAS-ERK signalling in cancer: promises and challenges

Samatar, AA, Poulikakos, PI

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2014
20674547 RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: structure and regulation

Roskoski, R Jr

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010
20179705 RAF inhibitors transactivate RAF dimers and ERK signalling in cells with wild-type BRAF

Poulikakos, PI, Zhang, C, Bollag, G, Shokat, KM, Rosen, N

Nature 2010
22510884 Distinct requirement for an intact dimer interface in wild-type, V600E and kinase-dead B-Raf signalling

Röring, M, Herr, R, Fiala, GJ, Heilmann, K, Braun, S, Eisenhardt, AE, Halbach, S, Capper, D, von Deimling, A, Schamel, WW, Saunders, DN, Brummer, T

EMBO J. 2012
23680146 RAF inhibitors activate the MAPK pathway by relieving inhibitory autophosphorylation

Holderfield, M, Merritt, H, Chan, J, Wallroth, M, Tandeske, L, Zhai, H, Tellew, J, Hardy, S, Hekmat-Nejad, M, Stuart, DD, McCormick, F, Nagel, TE

Cancer Cell 2013
20130576 RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth

Hatzivassiliou, G, Song, K, Yen, I, Brandhuber, BJ, Anderson, DJ, Alvarado, R, Ludlam, MJ, Stokoe, D, Gloor, SL, Vigers, G, Morales, T, Aliagas, I, Liu, B, Sideris, S, Hoeflich, KP, Jaiswal, BS, Seshagiri, S, Koeppen, H, Belvin, M, Friedman, LS, Malek, S

Nature 2010
15035987 Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF

Wan, PT, Garnett, MJ, Roe, SM, Lee, S, Niculescu-Duvaz, D, Good, VM, Jones, CM, Marshall, CJ, Springer, CJ, Barford, D, Marais, R

Cell 2004
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Name Identifier Synonyms
cancer 162 malignant tumor, malignant neoplasm, primary cancer
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