The human event of S100A1 is inferred from the mouse data.
S100A1 is a Ca(2+)-sensing protein of the EF-hand family. S100A1 is expressed predominantly in cardiomyocytes, where it regulates Ca(2+)-dependent signaling events (Wright NT et al. 2005; Cannon BR et al. 2011; Brinks H et al. 2011; Yu J et al. 2015; Rohde D et al. 2014; Ritterhoff J & Most P 2012). In response to ischemic/hypoxic damage of cardiomyocytes, S100A1 is released or transferred to the extracellular region through open channels on membrane (Rohde D et al. 2014). The extracellular S100A1 activates signal and promotes cell survival pathways, including inflammation response via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (Brinks H et al. 2011; Yu J et al. 2015; Rohde D et al. 2014). In rodent H9C2 cells S100A1 was found to regulate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress via TLR4/ROS/NFkappaB pathway ( Yu J et al. 2015).