Lamellar bodies bind the early cornified envelope

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Homo sapiens
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Lamellar bodies (LBs) ) are lipid-rich organelles produced by keratinocytes and secreted to form an impermeable water barrier (Feingold & Elias 2014). The lipids in LBs contain phospholipids, glucosylceramides, sphingomyelin and cholesterol (Feingold 2007). These lipids, some of which are keratinization specific, are synthesized and accumulate in the trans Golgi apparatus, budding off as LBs that accumulate in the granular layer (Wertz & van den Bergh 1998). ). LB lipids also organize into characteristic intercellular lamellae (Kalinin et al. 2002). LBs fuse with the plasma membrane (Schmitz & Muller 1991, Chattopadhyay et al. 2003) delivering lipids which become ester-linked to involucrin and probably other cornified envelope proteins by TG1 (Nemes et al. 1991) and possibly TG5 (Candi et al. 2005), forming a monomolecular layer termed the lipid envelope. Eventually these lipids replace the plasma membrane lipid bilayer, which is reabsorbed. Extracellularly, the LB lipids are further metabolized to have a unique composition and are 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol, and 15% free fatty acids (Feingold 2007).

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