DNA Replication

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-69306
Type
Pathway
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
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Studies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), is well understood, and has served as a model for studies of DNA replication initiation in multicellular eukaryotes, including humans. In general terms, the first step of initiation is the binding of the replication initiator to the origin of replication. The replicative helicase is then assembled onto the origin, usually by a helicase assembly factor. Either shortly before or shortly after helicase assembly, some local unwinding of the origin of replication occurs in a region rich in adenine and thymine bases (often termed a DNA unwinding element, DUE). The unwound region provides the substrate for primer synthesis and initiation of DNA replication. The best-defined eukaryotic origins are those of S. cerevisiae, which have well-conserved sequence elements for initiator binding, DNA unwinding and binding of accessory proteins. In multicellular eukaryotes, unlike S. cerevisiae, these loci appear not to be defined by the presence of a DNA sequence motif. Indeed, choice of replication origins in a multicellular eukaryote may vary with developmental stage and tissue type. In cell-free models of metazoan DNA replication, such as the one provided by Xenopus egg extracts, there are only limited DNA sequence specificity requirements for replication initiation (Kelly & Brown 2000; Bell & Dutta 2002; Marahrens & Stillman 1992; Cimbora & Groudine 2001; Mahbubani et al 1992, Hyrien & Mechali 1993).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
10966477 Regulation of chromosome replication.

Kelly, TJ, Brown, GW

Annu Rev Biochem 2000
1536007 A yeast chromosomal origin of DNA replication defined by multiple functional elements.

Marahrens, Y, Stillman, B

Science 1992
12045100 DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.

Bell, SP, Dutta, A

Annu Rev Biochem 2002
8223461 Chromosomal replication initiates and terminates at random sequences but at regular intervals in the ribosomal DNA of Xenopus early embryos.

Hyrien, O, M├ęchali, M

EMBO J 1993
1579437 DNA replication initiates at multiple sites on plasmid DNA in Xenopus egg extracts.

Mahbubani, HM, Paull, T, Elder, JK, Blow, JJ

Nucleic Acids Res 1992
11257218 The control of mammalian DNA replication: a brief history of space and timing.

Cimbora, DM, Groudine, M

Cell 2001
Participants
Orthologous Events
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