Mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH3 catalyzes the irreversible reaction of isocitrate and NAD+ to form alpha ketoglutarate, CO2, and NADH + H+. The enzyme is a heteromer containing four polypeptide chains, two IDH3A, one IDH3B, and one IDH3G, and two Mn++ (Dange and Colman 2010). It is activated by ADP (Soundar et al. 2003, 2006; Bzymek and Colman 2007). This is the first of four oxidation reactions in the citric acid cycle, and the first decarboxylation.