mRNA polyadenylation

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-72185
Type
Reaction [transition]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
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The upstream fragment generated by 3' cleavage of the pre-mRNA receives a poly(A) tail of approximately 250 AMP residues in a reaction depending on the AAUAAA sequence 10 to 30 nucleotides upstream of the 3' end. Polyadenylation is carried out by three proteins: Poly(A) polymerase carries the catalytic activity. The enzyme has no specificity for any particular RNA sequence, and it also has a very low affinity for the RNA.

Under physiological conditions, the activity of poly(A) polymerase thus depends on two auxiliary factors, both of which bind to specific RNA sequences and recruit the enzyme by a direct contact. One of these proteins is the heterotetrameric CPSF, which binds the AAUAAA sequence and is also essential for 3' cleavage. The second is the nuclear poly(A) binding protein (PABPN1), which binds the growing poly(A) tails once this has reached a length of about ten nucleotides. Stimulation of poly(A) polymerase by both proteins is synergistic and results in processive elongation of the RNA, i.e. the polymerase adds AMP residues without dissociating from the RNA. The processive reaction is terminated when the tail has reached a length of about 250 nucleotides.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
10357856 Formation of mRNA 3' ends in eukaryotes: mechanism, regulation, and interrelationships with other steps in mRNA synthesis.

Zhao, J, Hyman, L, Moore, C

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1999
2408761 Accurate cleavage and polyadenylation of exogenous RNA substrate.

Moore, CL, Sharp, PA

Cell 1985
Participants
Participant Of
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity of PAPOLA [nucleoplasm]
Physical Entity
Activity
Orthologous Events
Authored
Created