GDNF stimulation of neuronal cells induces the assembly of a large protein complex containing RET, GRB2 and tyrosine-phosphorylated SHC1, p85 subunit of (PI3K), GAB2 (GAB1 in Hayashi et al. 2000) and Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11, SHP-2) (Besset et al. 2000). RET binds SHC1 via phosphorylated tyrosine-1062 (Asai et al. 1996, Arighi et al. 1997).