LYZ hydrolyzes peptidoglycans in the bacterial cell wall

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-8862320
Type
Reaction [omitted]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
Synonyms
LYZ hydrolyzes beta 1->4 linkages of between GlcNAc and MurNAc
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Lysozyme (LYZ), also known as 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C, is a host hydrolytic enzyme with muramidase activity that hydrolyzes (1->4)-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (Schindler M et al. 1977; Surna A et al. 2009). LYZ acts against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Peptostreptococcus micros, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium periodontium and Campylobacter rectus (Surna A et al. 2009; Tenovuo J 2002). The muramidase activity of LYZ is thought to be more effective against Gram-positive bacteria with their peptidoglycan layer exposed to the extracellular milieu. The detailed mechanism by which LYZ hydrolyses its substrate is described for hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) (Blake CC et al. 1967; Vocadlo DJ et al. 2001).

Many pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae have evolved lysozyme resistance to prevent peptidoglycan hydrolysis. The primary mechanism for lysozyme resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms appears to be direct modification of peptidoglycan; however, modification of other cell wall-linked components, such as teichoic acid, may also contribute to resistance (Amano K & Williams JC 1983; Bera A et al. 2005; Pushkaran AC et al. 2015).

LYZ is found in many human secretions such as tears, milk, mucus and saliva (Surna A et al. 2009; Minami J et al. 2015; Sahin O et al. 2016; Masschalck B & Michiels CW. 2003).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19179970 Lysozyme and microbiota in relation to gingivitis and periodontitis

Surna, A, Kubilius, R, Sakalauskiene, J, Vitkauskiene, A, Jonaitis, J, Saferis, V, Gleiznys, A

Med. Sci. Monit. 2009
13816 Mechanism of lysozyme catalysis: role of ground-state strain in subsite D in hen egg-white and human lysozymes

Schindler, M, Assaf, Y, Sharon, N, Chipman, DM

Biochemistry 1977
Participants
Participant Of
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
lysozyme activity of LYZ:PGN [extracellular region]
Physical Entity
Activity
Orthologous Events
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