Interleukin-34 (IL34) can bind Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1). The IL34:CSF1 heteromer may bind Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) facilitating receptor maturation and cellular trafficking. Consequently, downstream signaling pathways are activated (Segaliny et al. 2015). Ultimately, these events lead to the release of pro-inflammatory chemokines regulating the innate immunity and inflammation. The exact binding mechanism of IL34:CSF1 to CSF1R is unclear. Hence, this interaction is represented as a black box event.