Germline mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and somatic mutations in several genes involved in base excision repair (BER), a DNA repair pathway where a damaged DNA base is excised and replaced with a correct base, are involved in the development of cancer and several other oxidative stress-related diseases. For review, please refer to Fu et al. 2012, Fletcher and Houlston 2010, Brenerman et al. 2014, Patrono et al. 2014, and D'Errico et al. 2017.