nsp16 acts as a cap 2'-O-methyltransferase to modify SARS-CoV-1 mRNAs

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-9684033
Type
Reaction [transition]
Species
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Human SARS coronavirus
Compartment
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The subgenomic mRNAs of SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus are presumed to be capped at their 5′ ends, based on studies of the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (Lai and Stohlman 1981) and the equine torovirus (van Vliet et al. 2002). The non-structural protein 16 (nsp16) acts as a 2'O-methyltransferase that converts coronavirus cap-0 to cap-1, which was first demonstrated with nsp16 cloned from the feline coronavirus (FCV) (Decroly et al. 2008). Cap-0 represents N7-methyl guanosine connected to the 5′ nucleotide through a 5′ to 5′ triphosphate linkage (also known as m7G cap or m7Gppp cap). Cap-1 is generated by an additional methylation on the 2′O position of the initiating nucleotide, and is also known as m7GpppNm. The non-structural protein 10 (nsp10) acts as an activator of nsp16 and is necessary for cap-1 synthesis (Bouvet et al. 2010, Decroly et al. 2011). Coronavirus RNAs with cap-1 are protected from IFIT-mediated interferon response, as IFITs recognize unmethylated 2'-O RNAs. IFITs are interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats that recognize unmethylated 2'-O RNAs and act to inhibit expression of virally encoded mRNAs (Menachery et al. 2014).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
20421945 In vitro reconstitution of SARS-coronavirus mRNA cap methylation

Bouvet, M, Debarnot, C, Imbert, I, Selisko, B, Snijder, EJ, Canard, B, Decroly, E

PLoS Pathog. 2010
21637813 Crystal structure and functional analysis of the SARS-coronavirus RNA cap 2'-O-methyltransferase nsp10/nsp16 complex

Decroly, E, Debarnot, C, Ferron, F, Bouvet, M, Coutard, B, Imbert, I, Gluais, L, Papageorgiou, N, Sharff, A, Bricogne, G, Ortiz-Lombardia, M, Lescar, J, Canard, B

PLoS Pathog. 2011
Participants
Participant Of
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
mRNA (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase activity of RTC [double membrane vesicle viral factory outer membrane]
Physical Entity
Activity
Disease
Name Identifier Synonyms
severe acute respiratory syndrome 2945 SARS-CoV infection, SARS
Authored
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