Expression of MSX1 in the neural plate border

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Homo sapiens
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Stimulation of WNT signaling in human embryonic stem cells induces the expression of MSX1 via beta-catenin (CTNNB1) and results in the differentiation of multipotent neural border-like cells and neural crest-like cells (Leung et al. 2016). Stimulation of BMP signaling, in the presence of WNT and FGF activity, induces the expression of MSX1 during neural crest differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells (Mimura et al. 2016). The TFAP2A:TFAP2C heterodimer also participates in enhancing expression of MSX1 (inferred from chicken homologs in Rothstein and Simoes-Costa 2020). Similar regulation of Msx1 is observed in Xenopus where Tfap2a activates Msx1 in the neural border (de Croze et al. 2011). BMP4 (inferred from Xenopus and zebrafish in Suzuki et al. 1997, Tribulo et al. 2003) and Gbx2 (inferred from Xenopus in Li et al. 2009) induce Msx1, which is able to induce early neural crest genes (Tribulo et al. 2003). In mice, Msx1 together with Msx2 regulates development of structures derived from the cranial and cardiac neural crest (Ishii et al. 2005)
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
26934293 Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes craniofacial neural crest induction from human pluripotent stem cells

Okada, K, Nikawa, H, Mimura, S, Furue, MK, Suga, M, Kinehara, M

Int J Dev Biol 2016
26839343 WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate

Prasad, MS, Murdoch, B, Gomez, GA, Salem, AF, García-Castro, MI, Leung, AW

Development 2016
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