Expression of TFAP2A in the neural plate border

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Homo sapiens
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Activation of canonical WNT signaling by inhibition of GSK3 causes expression of the pre-neural border gene GBX2 and the neural border genes TFAP2A, PAX3, PAX7, MSX1 in human embryonic stem cells (Leung et al. 2016). Addition of BMP4 late during the in vitro differentiation of neural crest cells from embryonic stem cells activates expression of TFAP2A and other markers of neural plate border and neural crest (Mimura et al. 2016). This agrees with findings in chicken that show inhibition of BMP signaling during gastrulation followed by activation of WNT and BMP signaling during neurulation induce differentiation of neural crest (Patthey et al. 2009). Activation of WNT signaling and inhibition of BMP signaling in human pluripotent stem cells in vitro generates neural crest cells (Tchieu et al. 2017). Activation of WNT signaling and BMP signaling generates cranial placode cells (Tchieu et al. 2017). Both neural crest and cranial placode cells express TFAP2A (Tchieu et al. 2017).
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
26934293 Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes craniofacial neural crest induction from human pluripotent stem cells

Okada, K, Nikawa, H, Mimura, S, Furue, MK, Suga, M, Kinehara, M

Int J Dev Biol 2016
28886367 A Modular Platform for Differentiation of Human PSCs into All Major Ectodermal Lineages

Tchieu, J, Zimmer, B, Studer, L, Zeltner, N, Chen, S, Fattahi, F, Amin, S

Cell Stem Cell 2017
26839343 WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate

Prasad, MS, Murdoch, B, Gomez, GA, Salem, AF, García-Castro, MI, Leung, AW

Development 2016
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