Hoxc4 is expressed in embryos at E12.5 caudal to rhombomere 7 (r7, Geada et al. 1992). Hoxc4 is also expressed at the level of prevertebrae 4-5, in spinal column, esophagus, lung, trachea, and metanephric kidney (Geada et al. 1992). Vitamin A (and hence retinoic acid) appears to induce expression of Hoxc4 (Liu and Zhu 2000). Hoxc4 is induced by beta-catenin during neurogenesis of embryonic stem cells (Otero et al. 2004). Chromatin at Hoxc4 loses methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3), loses polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and gains methylation at lysine-4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3) during treatment of embryonic stem cells with retinoic acid (Mazzoni et al. 2013).