Search results for CEL

Showing 24 results out of 370

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Species

Types

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Protein (3 results from a total of 5)

CEL

Identifier: R-HSA-192416
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
Primary external reference: UniProt: CEL: P19835
Identifier: R-HSA-8849616
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
Primary external reference: UniProt: P08217
Identifier: R-HSA-8934818
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Primary external reference: UniProt: CELA2A: P08217

Reaction (3 results from a total of 166)

Identifier: R-HSA-192430
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
CEL (bile salt-dependent lipase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of extracellular monoacylglycerols to yield glycerol and a long-chain fatty acid. This reaction, in the lumen of the small intestine, is essential for the complete digestion of milk-derived triacylglycerols in the nursing infant (Bernback et al. 1990). Its importance in adult fat digestion is unclear.

While alternative splicing gives rise to two CEL isoforms, only the longer one encodes all of the residues that form the active site of the enzyme (Reue et al. 1991). In vitro, monomeric CEL protein is active even in the absence of bile salts. its activity is greatly increased when it is complexed with two molecules of cholate, chenodeoxycholate, or their glycine or taurine conjugates (Lombardo and Guy 1980), and the predominant form of the enzyme active on lipid micelles in the gut is a dimer of two such complexes (Aubert-Jousset et al. 2004).

CEL is synthesized in pancreatic acinar cells and released into the small intestine. It is also synthesized in the mammary gland and is a constituent of breast milk (Lombardo 2001; Bernback et al. 1990).

Identifier: R-HSA-192425
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
CEL (bile salt-dependent lipase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of extracellular monoacylglycerols to yield glycerol and a long-chain fatty acid. This reaction, in the lumen of the small intestine, is essential for the complete digestion of milk-derived triacylglycerols in the nursing infant (Bernback et al. 1990). Its importance in adult fat digestion is unclear.

While alternative splicing gives rise to two CEL isoforms, only the longer one encodes all of the residues that form the active site of the enzyme (Reue et al. 1991). In vitro, monomeric CEL protein is active even in the absence of bile salts. its activity is greatly increased when it is complexed with two molecules of cholate, chenodeoxycholate, or their glycine or taurine conjugates (Lombardo and Guy 1980), and the predominant form of the enzyme active on lipid micelles in the gut is a dimer of two such complexes (Aubert-Jousset et al. 2004).

CEL is synthesized in pancreatic acinar cells and released into the small intestine. It is also synthesized in the mammary gland and is a constituent of breast milk (Lombardo 2001; Bernback et al. 1990).

Identifier: R-HSA-192417
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
CEL (bile salt-dependent lipase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of extracellular cholesterol esters to yield cholesterol and a long-chain fatty acid. This reaction, in the lumen of the small intestine, is part of the process of digestion of dietary fats.

While alternative splicing gives rise to two CEL isoforms, only the longer one encodes all of the residues that form the active site of the enzyme (Reue et al. 1991). In vitro, monomeric CEL protein is active even in the absence of bile salts. Its activity is greatly increased when it is complexed with two molecules of cholate, chenodeoxycholate, or their glycine or taurine conjugates (Lombardo and Guy 1980), and the predominant form of the enzyme active on lipid micelles in the gut is a dimer of two such complexes (Aubert-Jousset et al. 2004).

CEL is synthesized in pancreatic acinar cells and released into the small intestine. It is also synthesized in the mammary gland and is a constituent of breast milk. The milk CEL is thought to play a role in digestion of milk fat in newborn infants, whose own pancreatic synthesis of the enzyme is low (Lombardo 2001; Bernback et al. 1990).

Pathway (3 results from a total of 98)

Identifier: R-HSA-421270
Species: Homo sapiens
Epithelial cell-cell contacts consist of three major adhesion systems: adherens junctions (AJs), tight junctions (TJs), and desmosomes. These adhesion systems differ in their function and composition. AJs play a critical role in initiating cell-cell contacts and promoting the maturation and maintenance of the contacts (reviewed in Ebnet, 2008; Hartsock and Nelson, 2008). TJs form physical barriers in various tissues and regulate paracellular transport of water, ions, and small water soluble molecules (reviewed in Rudini and Dejana, 2008; Ebnet, 2008; Aijaz et al., 2006; Furuse and Tsukit, 2006). Desmosomes mediate strong cell adhesion linking the intermediate filament cytoskeletons between cells and playing roles in wound repair, tissue morphogenesis, and cell signaling (reviewed in Holthofer et al., 2007).
Identifier: R-HSA-1500931
Species: Homo sapiens
Cell-to-Cell communication is crucial for multicellular organisms because it allows organisms to coordinate the activity of their cells. Some cell-to-cell communication requires direct cell-cell contacts mediated by receptors on their cell surfaces. Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins are some of the cell surface receptors involved in cell-cell recognition, communication and many aspects of the axon guidance and synapse formation-the crucial processes during embryonal development (Rougon & Hobert 2003).

Processes annotated here as aspects of cell junction organization mediate the formation and maintenance of adherens junctions, tight junctions, and gap junctions, as well as aspects of cellular interactions with extracellular matrix and hemidesmosome assembly. Nephrin protein family interactions are central to the formation of the slit diaphragm, a modified adherens junction. Interactions among members of the signal regulatory protein family are important for the regulation of migration and phagocytosis by myeloid cells.

Identifier: R-HSA-1640170
Species: Homo sapiens
The replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried out during a discrete temporal period known as the S (synthesis)-phase, and chromosome segregation occurs during a massive reorganization to cellular architecture at mitosis. Two gap-phases separate these major cell cycle events: G1 between mitosis and S-phase, and G2 between S-phase and mitosis. In the development of the human body, cells can exit the cell cycle for a period and enter a quiescent state known as G0, or terminally differentiate into cells that will not divide again, but undergo morphological development to carry out the wide variety of specialized functions of individual tissues.

A family of protein serine/threonine kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) controls progression through the cell cycle. As the name suggests, the activity of the catalytic subunit is dependent on binding to a cyclin partner. The human genome encodes several cyclins and several CDKs, with their names largely derived from the order in which they were identified. The oscillation of cyclin abundance is one important mechanism by which these enzymes phosphorylate key substrates to promote events at the relevant time and place. Additional post-translational modifications and interactions with regulatory proteins ensure that CDK activity is precisely regulated, frequently confined to a narrow window of activity.

In addition, genome integrity in the cell cycle is maintained by the action of a number of signal transduction pathways, known as cell cycle checkpoints, which monitor the accuracy and completeness of DNA replication during S phase and the orderly chromosomal condensation, pairing and partition into daughter cells during mitosis.

Replication of telomeric DNA at the ends of human chromosomes and packaging of their centromeres into chromatin are two aspects of chromosome maintenance that are integral parts of the cell cycle.

Meiosis is the specialized form of cell division that generates haploid gametes from diploid germ cells, associated with recombination (exchange of genetic material between chromosomal homologs).

Complex (3 results from a total of 45)

Identifier: R-HSA-173752
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-198183
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-166784
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane

Set (3 results from a total of 12)

Identifier: R-HSA-9610864
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-9611144
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endosome membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-197153
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region

ChemicalDrug (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-ALL-9716723
Compartment: cytosol

OtherEntity (3 results from a total of 6)

Identifier: R-ALL-983438
Compartment: plasma membrane
This entity is intended to represent any molecule that might be at the outer cell surface of any cell, host or microbial.
Identifier: R-ALL-8879165
Compartment: plasma membrane
This entity is intended to represent any molecule that might be at the outer cell surface of a microbial cell
Identifier: R-ALL-8851965
Compartment: plasma membrane
This entity is intended to represent any molecule that might be at the outer cell surface of any cell, host or microbial.

Genes and Transcripts (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-446505
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-446513
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane

Icon (3 results from a total of 35)

Species: Homo sapiens
Curator: Bijay Jassal
Designer: Cristoffer Sevilla
CELA icon
Chymotrypsin-like elastase family member
Species: Homo sapiens
Curator: Steve Jupe
Designer: Cristoffer Sevilla
B cell icon
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype
Species: Homo sapiens
Curator: Steve Jupe
Designer: Cristoffer Sevilla
T cell icon
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity
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