Search results for EBP

Showing 16 results out of 32

×

Species

Types

Compartments

Reaction types

Search properties

Species

Types

Compartments

Reaction types

Search properties

Protein (2 results from a total of 2)

EBP

Identifier: R-HSA-195697
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Primary external reference: UniProt: EBP: Q15125
Identifier: R-HSA-381378
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: P17676

Reaction (7 results from a total of 23)

Identifier: R-HSA-6807052
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum membrane
EBP (3-beta-hydroxysteroid-Delta(8),Delta(7)-isomerase) associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane catalyzes the conversion of ZYMSTNL (zymostenol) to LTHSOL (lathosterol) (Braverman et al. 1999; Derry et al. 1999; Kandutsch & Russell 1960; Mitsche et al. 2015).
Identifier: R-HSA-9616214
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The evolutionarily conserved upstream enhancer of the CEBPA gene binds RUNX1, SPI1 (PU.1), GATA2, TAL1 (SCL), FLI1, and MYB in hemopoietic progenitor cells and myeloid progenitor cells (inferred from mouse). Unlike the promoter of the mouse Cebpa gene, the human CEBPA promoter does not bind CEBPA and autoregulation of CEBPA occurs indirectly through CEBPA-stimulated binding of USF to the promoter of the CEBPA gene (Timchenko et al. 1995). As inferred from mouse homologs, RUNX1, GATA2, SCL, SPI1, and FLI1 bind concomitantly.
Identifier: R-HSA-3857328
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Phosphorylation of CEBPB (C/EBP-beta) serine residue S321 by ERK1/2-activated RSK1, RSK2 or RSK3, downstream of activated RAS, is necessary for the relief of CEBPB autoinhibiton (Lee et al. 2010). Phosphorylation on other sites may also be involved in CEBPB activation.
Identifier: R-NUL-3876071
Species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Phosphorylation of rat Cebpb (C/EBP-beta) serine residue S273 by ERK1/2-activated human RSK1, mouse RSK2 or human RSK3, downstream of activated RAS, is necessary for the relief of Cebpb autoinhibiton (Lee et al. 2010). Phosphorylation on other sites may also be involved in Cebpb activation.
Identifier: R-HSA-9617207
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The promoter of the CSF3R gene contains 2 binding sites for SPI1 (PU.1) in the 5' untranslated region (Smith et al. 1996). The 3' site binds SPI1 less strongly (Smith et al. 1996). SPI1 and CEBPA appear to act synergistically in activating transcription of CSFR3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicates CEBPA and DEK1 together bind the CSF3R promoter and depletion of DEK1 reduces activation of transcription by CEBPA (Koleva et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-9618582
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
CEBPA interacts with E2F1 (Keeshan et al. 2003) bound to the promoter of the MYC gene (Johansen et al. 2001, D'Alo' et al.2003, also inferred from mouse homologs). CEBPA inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of E2F1 and inhibits transcription of MYC. By inhibiting MYC, CEBPA inhibits cell proliferation and promotes differentiation (Johansen et al. 2001, D'Alo' et al. 2003). The N terminus of the p42 isoform of CEBPA is required for interaction with E2F factors (inferred from mouse homologs) and therefore the p30 isoform, which lacks the N terminus, has a reduced ability to inhibit proliferation.
Identifier: R-HSA-8949343
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, plasma membrane
Transcription of the ITGAL (CD11a) gene, is stimulated by binding of RUNX3, presumably in complex with CBFB, to the ITGAL promoter. ITGAL is a leukocyte integrin involved in transendothelial migration of leukocytes during immune and inflammatory responses as well as co-stimulation of T cells. RUNX3, as well as RUNX1, positively regulate integrin alpha 4 (ITGA4, also known as CD49d) expression. A RUNX binding site exists in the ITGA4 promoter, but the direct regulation by RUNX transcription factors has not been demonstrated (Domniguez-Soto et al. 2005).

Complex (4 results from a total of 4)

Identifier: R-HSA-8949328
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Identifier: R-HSA-9617790
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Identifier: R-HSA-9617202
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Identifier: R-HSA-3857334
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm

Pathway (3 results from a total of 3)

Identifier: R-HSA-381340
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, cytosol, plasma membrane
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develop morphologic and biochemical characteristics of mature adipocytes such as hormone responsive lipogenenic and lipolytic programs. The most intensively studied model system for adipogenesis is differentiation of the mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line by an induction cocktail of containing mitogens (insulin/IGF1), glucocorticoid (dexamethasone), an inducer of cAMP (IBMX), and fetal serum (Cao et al. 1991, reviewed in Farmer 2006). More recently additional cellular models have become available to study adipogenesis that involve almost all stages of development (reviewed in Rosen and MacDougald 2006). In vivo knockout mice lacking putative adipogenic factors have also been extensively studied. Human pathways are traditionally inferred from those discovered in mouse but are now beginning to be validated in cellular models derived from human adipose progenitors (Fischer-Posovszky et al. 2008, Wdziekonski et al. 2011).
Adipogenesis is controlled by a cascade of transcription factors (Yeh et al. 1995, reviewed in Farmer 2006, Gesta et al. 2007). One of the first observable events during adipocyte differentiation is a transient increase in expression of the CEBPB (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta, C/EBPB) and CEBPD (C/EBPD) transcription factors (Cao et al. 1991, reviewed in Lane et al. 1999). This occurs prior to the accumulation of lipid droplets. However, it is the subsequent inductions of CEBPA and PPARG that are critical for morphological, biochemical and functional adipocytes.
Ectopic expression of CEBPB alone is capable of inducing substantial adipocyte differentiation in fibroblasts while CEBPD has a minimal effect. CEBPB is upregulated in response to intracellular cAMP (possibly via pCREB) and serum mitogens (possibly via Krox20). CEBPD is upregulated in response to glucocorticoids. The exact mechanisms that upregulate the CEBPs are not fully known.
CEBPB and CEBPD act directly on the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) gene by binding its promoter and activating transcription. CEBPB and CEBPD also directly activate the EBF1 gene (and possibly other EBFs) and KLF5 (Jimenez et al. 2007, Oishi 2005). The EBF1 and KLF5 proteins, in turn bind, and activate the PPARG promoter. Other hormones, such as insulin, affect PPARG expression and other transcription factors, such as ADD1/SREBP1c, bind the PPARG promoter. This is an area of ongoing research.
During adipogenesis the PPARG gene is transcribed to yield 2 variants. The adipogenic variant 2 mRNA encodes 30 additional amino acids at the N-terminus compared to the widely expressed variant 1 mRNA.
PPARG encodes a type II nuclear hormone receptor (remains in the nucleus in the absence of ligand) that forms a heterodimer with the Retinoid X Receptor Alpha (RXRA). The heterodimer was initially identified as a complex regulating the aP2/FABP4 gene and named ARF6 (Tontonoz et al. 1994).
The PPARG:RXRA heterodimer binds a recognition sequence that consists of two hexanucleotide motifs (DR1 motifs) separated by 1 nucleotide. Binding occurs even in the absence of ligands, such as fatty acids, that activate PPARG. In the absence of activating ligands, the PPARG:RXRA complex recruits repressors of transcription such as SMRT/NCoR2, NCoR1, and HDAC3 (Tontonoz and Spiegelman 2008).
Each molecule of PPARG can bind 2 molecules of activating ligands. Although, the identity of the endogenous ligands of PPARG is unknown, exogenous activators include fatty acids and the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs (reviewed in Berger et al. 2005, Heikkinen et al. 2007, Lemberger et al. 1996). The most potent activators of PPARG in vitro are oxidized derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids.. Upon binding activating ligands PPARG causes a rearrangement of adjacent factors: Corepressors such as SMRT/NCoR2 are lost and coactivators such as TIF2, PRIP, CBP, and p300 are recruited (Tontonoz and Spiegelman). PPARG also binds directly to the TRAP220 subunit of the TRAP/Mediator complex that recruits RNA polymerase II. Thus binding of activating ligand by PPARG causes transcription of PPARG target genes.
Targets of PPARG include genes involved in differentiation (PGAR/HFARP, Perilipin, aP2/FABP4, CEBPA), fatty acid transport (LPL, FAT/CD36), carbohydrate metabolism (PEPCK-C, AQP7, GK, GLUT4 (SLC2A4)), and energy homeostasis (LEPTIN and ADIPONECTIN) (Perera et al. 2006).
Within 10 days of differentiation CEBPB and CEBPD are no longer located at the PPARG promoter. Instead CEBPA is present. EBF1 and PPARG bind the CEBPA promoter and activate transcription of CEBPA, one of the key transcription factors in adipogenesis. A current hypothesis posits a self-reinforcing loop that maintains PPARG expression and the differentiated state: PPARG activates CEBPA and CEBPA activates PPARG. Additionally EBF1 (and possibly other EBFs) activates CEBPA, CEBPA activates EBF1, and EBF1 activates PPARG.
Identifier: R-HSA-9616222
Species: Homo sapiens
Neutrophilic granulocytes (hereafter called granulocytes) are distinguished by multilobulated nuclei and presence of cytoplasmic granules containing antipathogenic proteins (reviewed in Cowland and Borregaard 2016, Yin and Heit 2018). Granulocytes comprise eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and neutrophils, all of which are ultimately derived from hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs), a self-renewing population of stem cells located in the bone marrow. A portion of HSCs exit self-renewing proliferation and differentiate to form multipotent progenitors (MPPs). MPPs then differentiate to form common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) as well as the erythrocyte lineage. CMPs further differentiate into granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) which can then differentiate into monocytes or any of the types of granulocytes (reviewed in Fiedler and Brunner 2012). granulocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in peripheral blood.
For early granulopoiesis the CEBPA, SPI1 (PU.1), RAR, CBF, and MYB transcription factors are essential. CEBPE, SPI1, SP1, CDP, and HOXA10 transcription factors initiate terminal neutrophil differentiation.
Initially, RUNX1 activates SPI1 (PU.1), which is believed to be the key transcription factor driving the formation of MPPs and CMPs (reviewed in Friedman 2007, Fiedler and Brunner 2012). SPI1, in turn, activates expression of CEBPA, an indispensable transcription factor for granulopoiesis especially important in the transition from CMP to GMP (inferred from mouse homologs in Wilson et al. 2010, Guo et al. 2012, Guo et al. 2014, Cooper et al. 2015). CEBPA, in turn, activates the expression of several transcription factors and receptors characteristic of granulocytes, including CEBPA (autoregulation), CEBPE (Loke et al. 2018, and inferred from mouse homologs in Wang and Friedman 2002, Friedman et al. 2003), GFI1 (inferred from mouse homologs in Lidonnici et al. 2010), KLF5 (Federzoni et al. 2014), IL6R (inferred from mouse homologs in Zhang et al. 1998), and CSF3R (Smith et al. 1996). Importantly, CEBPA dimers repress transcription of MYC (c-Myc) (Johansen et al. 2001, and inferred from mouse homologs in Slomiany et al. 2000, Porse et al. 2001). CEBPA binds CDK2 and CDK4 (Wang et al. 2001) which inhibits their kinase activity by disrupting their association with cyclins thereby limiting proliferation and favoring differentiation of granulocyte progenitors during regular ("steady-state") granulopoiesis (reviewed in Friedman 2015). The transcription factor GFI1 regulates G-CSF signaling and neutrophil development through the Ras activator RasGRP1 (de la Luz Sierra et al. 2010).
Inhibitors of DNA binding (ID) proteins ID1 and ID2 regulate granulopoiesis and eosinophil production such that ID1 induces neutrophil development and inhibits eosinophil differentiation, whereas ID2 induces both eosinophil and neutrophil development (Buitenhuis et al. 2005, Skokowa et al. 2009).
Major infection activates emergency granulopoiesis (reviewed in Manz and Boettcher 2014, Hirai et al. 2015), the production of large numbers of granulocytes in a relatively short period of time. Emergency granulopoiesis is activated by cytokines, CSF2 (GM-CSF) and especially CSF3 (G-CSF, reviewed in Panopoulos and Watowich 2008, Liongue et al. 2009) which bind receptors, CSF2R and CSF3R, respectively, resulting in expression of CEBPB, which interferes with repression of MYC by CEBPA (inferred from mouse homologs in Zhang et al. 2010) and represses MYC less than CEBPA does (Hirai et al. 2006), leading to proliferation of granulocyte progenitors prior to final differentiation.Both, emergency and steady-state granulopoiesis are regulated by direct interaction of CEBPA (steady-state) or CEBPB (emergency) proteins with NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, SIRT1 and SIRT2 (Skokowa et al. 2009). G-CSF induces the NAD+-generating enzyme, Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, or PBEF), that in turn activates sirtuins (Skokowa et al. 2009).
GADD45A and GADD45B proteins are essential for stress-induced granulopoiesis and granulocyte chemotaxis by activation of p38 kinase (Gupta et al. 2006, Salerno et al. 2012). SHP2 is required for induction of CEBPA expression and granulopoiesis in response to CSF3 (G-CSF) or other cytokines independent of SHP2-mediated ERK activation (Zhang et al. 2011).
Transcription of neutrophil granule proteins (e.g. ELANE, MPO, AZU1, DEFA4), that play an essential role in bacterial killing are regulated by CEBPE and SPI1 (PU.1) transcription factors (Gombart et al. 2003, Nakajima et al. 2006). RUNX1 and LEF1 also regulate ELANE (ELA2) mRNA expression by binding to its promoter (Li et al. 2003).
Identifier: R-HSA-2559582
Species: Homo sapiens
The culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), also known as the senescence messaging secretome (SMS). SASP components include inflammatory and immune-modulatory cytokines (e.g. IL6 and IL8), growth factors (e.g. IGFBPs), shed cell surface molecules (e.g. TNF receptors) and survival factors. While the SASP exhibits a wide ranging profile, it is not significantly affected by the type of senescence trigger (oncogenic signalling, oxidative stress or DNA damage) or the cell type (epithelial vs. mesenchymal) (Coppe et al. 2008). However, as both oxidative stress and oncogenic signaling induce DNA damage, the persistent DNA damage may be a deciding SASP initiator (Rodier et al. 2009). SASP components function in an autocrine manner, reinforcing the senescent phenotype (Kuilman et al. 2008, Acosta et al. 2008), and in the paracrine manner, where they may promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignancy in the nearby premalignant or malignant cells (Coppe et al. 2008). Interleukin-1-alpha (IL1A), a minor SASP component whose transcription is stimulated by the AP-1 (FOS:JUN) complex (Bailly et al. 1996), can cause paracrine senescence through IL1 and inflammasome signaling (Acosta et al. 2013).

Here, transcriptional regulatory processes that mediate the SASP are annotated. DNA damage triggers ATM-mediated activation of TP53, resulting in the increased level of CDKN1A (p21). CDKN1A-mediated inhibition of CDK2 prevents phosphorylation and inactivation of the Cdh1:APC/C complex, allowing it to ubiquitinate and target for degradation EHMT1 and EHMT2 histone methyltransferases. As EHMT1 and EHMT2 methylate and silence the promoters of IL6 and IL8 genes, degradation of these methyltransferases relieves the inhibition of IL6 and IL8 transcription (Takahashi et al. 2012). In addition, oncogenic RAS signaling activates the CEBPB (C/EBP-beta) transcription factor (Nakajima et al. 1993, Lee et al. 2010), which binds promoters of IL6 and IL8 genes and stimulates their transcription (Kuilman et al. 2008, Lee et al. 2010). CEBPB also stimulates the transcription of CDKN2B (p15-INK4B), reinforcing the cell cycle arrest (Kuilman et al. 2008). CEBPB transcription factor has three isoforms, due to three alternative translation start sites. The CEBPB-1 isoform (C/EBP-beta-1) seems to be exclusively involved in growth arrest and senescence, while the CEBPB-2 (C/EBP-beta-2) isoform may promote cellular proliferation (Atwood and Sealy 2010 and 2011). IL6 signaling stimulates the transcription of CEBPB (Niehof et al. 2001), creating a positive feedback loop (Kuilman et al. 2009, Lee et al. 2010). NF-kappa-B transcription factor is also activated in senescence (Chien et al. 2011) through IL1 signaling (Jimi et al. 1996, Hartupee et al. 2008, Orjalo et al. 2009). NF-kappa-B binds IL6 and IL8 promoters and cooperates with CEBPB transcription factor in the induction of IL6 and IL8 transcription (Matsusaka et al. 1993, Acosta et al. 2008). Besides IL6 and IL8, their receptors are also upregulated in senescence (Kuilman et al. 2008, Acosta et al. 2008) and IL6 and IL8 may be master regulators of the SASP.

IGFBP7 is also an SASP component that is upregulated in response to oncogenic RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling and oxidative stress, as its transcription is directly stimulated by the AP-1 (JUN:FOS) transcription factor. IGFBP7 negatively regulates RAS-RAF (BRAF)-MAPK signaling and is important for the establishment of senescence in melanocytes (Wajapeyee et al. 2008).

Please refer to Young and Narita 2009 for a recent review.

Cite Us!