Search results for HNRNPA1

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Protein (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-71927
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: HNRNPA1: P09651

Interactor (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: P09651-2
Species: Homo sapiens
Primary external reference: UniProt: P09651-2

Reaction (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-6803523
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Repression of FGFR2 exon IIIb splicing in mesenchymal cells depends on intronic splicing silencer (ISS) sequences upstream of exon IIIb as well as an exonic splicing element (ESE) within exon IIIb. These elements are bound by PTB1 and hnRNPA1, respectively, as part of a larger splicing complex, promoting the formation and expression of mature FGFR2c mRNA in mesenchymal cells (Carstens et al, 2000; Gil et al, 1991; Del Gatto et al, 1997; Del Gatto et al, 1999). For more detailed information on splicing and pre-mRNA maturation, please see the mRNA splicing pathway.
Identifier: R-HSA-6803838
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
In mesenchymal cells, FGFR2 IIIc exon splicing is favoured by the binding of PTB1 to intronic splice silencer (ISS) sequences 1 and 2 that flank the IIIb specific exon, and by the binding of hnRNPA1 to an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) within the IIIb specific exon (Del Gatto-Konczak et al, 1999; Carstens et al, 2000). Binding of these proteins to the nascent mRNA , which occurs in the context of a larger splicing complex, represses IIIb-specific alternative splicing and favours the formation of FGFR2 IIIc-specific mRNA.

Pathway (3 results from a total of 3)

Identifier: R-HSA-6803529
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Alternative splicing of the FGFR2 nascent mRNA generates an epithelial specific isoform (FGFR2 IIIb) and a mesenchymal specific isoform (FGFR2 IIIc). The inclusion of exon 8 in FGFR2 IIIb or exon 9 in FGFR2 IIIc alters the C-terminal half of the D3 loop of the receptor and is responsible for the different ligand-binding specificities of the two isoforms (reviewed in Eswarakumar et al, 2005). In recent years, a number of cis- and trans-acting elements have been identified that regulate the alternative splicing event. Exon IIIb repression is mediated by the presence of weak splice sites flanking the exon, an exonic silencing sequence (ESS) within the IIIb exon and both intronic silencing sequences (ISS) upstream and downstream (Carstens et al, 2000; Del Gatto and Breathnach, 1995; Del Gatto et al, 1996; Wagner et al 2005; Wagner and Garcia-Blanco, 2001). Binding of hnRNPA1, PTB1, SR family proteins and other factors to these elements represses the IIIb exon and promotes FGFR2 IIIc expression in mesenchymal cells (Del Gatto-Konczak et al, 1999; Carstens et al, 2000; Wagner et al, 2005; Wagner and Garcia-Blanco, 2001; Wagner and Garcia-Blanco, 2002). In epithelial cells, recruitment of epithelial specific factors shifts the splicing events to favour inclusion of exon 8. ESPN1 and ESPN2 are epithelial-specific factors that bind to an ISE/ISS-3 (intronic splicing enhancer/intronic splicing silencer-3) region within intron 8 to promote FGFR2 IIIb-specific splicing (Warzecha et al, 2009). A complex of RBFOX2, hnRNPH1 and hnRNPF also contribute to epithelial-specific splicing by competing for binding to a site that is occupied by the SR proteins ASF/SF2 in mesenchymal cells (Baraniak et al, 2006; Mauger et al, 2008). Other proteins and sequences have also been identified that appear to contribute to the regulated expression of FGFR2b and FGFR2c, but the full details of the alternative splicing event remain to be worked out (Muh et al, 2002; Newman et al, 2006; Del Gatto et al, 2000; Hovhannisyan and Carstens, 2007).
Identifier: R-HSA-9679514
Species: Homo sapiens
Using the genomic RNA as a template, the coronavirus replicase synthesizes full-length negative-sense antigenome, which in turn serves as a template for the synthesis of new genomic RNA (Masters 2006). The polymerase can also switch template during discontinuous transcription of the genome at specific sites called transcription-regulated sequences, thereby producing a 5'-nested set of negative-sense sgRNAs, which are used as templates for the synthesis of a 3'-nested set of positive-sense sgRNAs (Masters 2006). Although genome replication/transcription is mainly mediated by the viral replicase and confines in the replication-transcription complex (RTC), the involvement of various additional viral and host factors has been implicated. For instance, coronavirus N protein is known to serve as an RNA chaperone and facilitate template switching (Zúñiga et al. 2007, Zúñiga et al. 2010). Importantly, the N protein of SARS-CoV-1 and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM) is also phosphorylated by the host glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and inhibition of GSK3 was shown to inhibit viral replication in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-1 (Wu et al. 2009). Additionally, GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of the MHV-JHM N protein recruited an RNA-binding protein DEAD-box helicase 1 (DDX1), which facilitates template read-through, favoring the synthesis of genomic RNA and longer sgRNAs (Wu et al. 2014). Another RNA-binding protein called heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) can also bind tightly to SARS-CoV N protein and potentially regulate viral RNA synthesis (Luo et al. 2005). Host RNA-binding proteins could also bind directly to untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coronavirus genome to modulate replication/transcription, such as zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA-binding motif 1 (ZCRB1) binding to the 5-UTR of IBV (Tan et al. 2012), mitochondrial aconitase binding to the 3' UTR of MHV (Nanda and Leibowitz 2001), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) to the poly(A) tail of bovine coronavirus (Spagnolo and Hogue 2000). For review, please refer to Snijder et al. 2016 and Fung and Liu 2019.
Identifier: R-HSA-9694682
Species: Homo sapiens
This COVID-19 pathway has been created by a combination of computational inference from SARS-CoV-1 data (https://reactome.org/documentation/inferred-events) and manual curation, as described in the summation for the overall SARS-CoV-2 infection pathway. Specifically, binding of the replication-transcription complex (RTC) to the RNA template and the polymerase activity of nsp12 (Hillen et al. 2020, Wang et al. 2020, Yin et al. 2020), helicase activity of nsp13 (Chen et al. 2020, Ji et al. 2020, Shu et al. 2020), capping activity of nsp16 (Viswanathan et al. 2020), and polyadenylation of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA and transcripts (Kim et al. 2020, Ravindra et al. 2020) have been studied directly, and the remaining steps have been inferred from previous studies in SARS-CoV-1 and related coronaviruses.

Using the genomic RNA as a template, the coronavirus replicase synthesizes full-length negative-sense antigenome, which in turn serves as a template for the synthesis of new genomic RNA (Masters 2006). The polymerase can also switch template during discontinuous transcription of the genome at specific sites called transcription-regulated sequences, thereby producing a 5'-nested set of negative-sense sgRNAs, which are used as templates for the synthesis of a 3'-nested set of positive-sense sgRNAs (Masters 2006). Although genome replication/transcription is mainly mediated by the viral replicase and confines in the RTC, the involvement of various additional viral and host factors has been implicated. For instance, coronavirus N protein is known to serve as an RNA chaperone and facilitate template switching (Zúñiga et al. 2007, Zúñiga et al. 2010). Importantly, the N protein of SARS-CoV-1 and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM) is also phosphorylated by the host glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and inhibition of GSK3 was shown to inhibit viral replication in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-1 (Wu et al. 2009). Additionally, GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of the MHV-JHM N protein recruits an RNA-binding protein DEAD-box helicase 1 (DDX1), which facilitates template read-through, favoring the synthesis of genomic RNA and longer sgRNAs (Wu et al. 2014). Another RNA-binding protein called heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) can also bind tightly to SARS-CoV-1 N protein and potentially regulate viral RNA synthesis (Luo et al. 2005). Host RNA-binding proteins could also bind directly to untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coronavirus genome to modulate replication/transcription, such as zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA-binding motif 1 (ZCRB1) binding to the 5-UTR of IBV (Tan et al. 2012), mitochondrial aconitase binding to the 3' UTR of MHV (Nanda and Leibowitz 2001), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) to the poly(A) tail of bovine coronavirus (Spagnolo and Hogue 2000). For review, please refer to Snijder et al. 2016 and Fung and Liu 2019.
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