Search results for IRAK4

Showing 22 results out of 116

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Species

Types

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Reaction types

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Protein (4 results from a total of 11)

Identifier: R-HSA-166081
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Primary external reference: UniProt: IRAK4: Q9NWZ3
Identifier: R-HSA-937051
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q9NWZ3
Identifier: R-HSA-975167
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endosome membrane
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q9NWZ3
Identifier: R-HSA-5602517
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Primary external reference: UniProt: IRAK4: Q9NWZ3

Set (4 results from a total of 4)

Identifier: R-HSA-5602412
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Identifier: R-HSA-450810
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Identifier: R-HSA-451413
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Identifier: R-HSA-451425
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol

Pathway (4 results from a total of 6)

Identifier: R-HSA-5603037
Species: Homo sapiens
Toll like receptor 5 (TLR5) specifically recognizes bacterial infection through binding of flagellin from pathogenic bacteria. Upon ligand binding, TLR5 dimers recruit MyD88 through their TIR domains. Then, MyD88 oligomerizes via its death domain (DD) and TIR domain and interacts with the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) to form the Myddosome complex (MyD88:IRAK4:IRAK1/2) (Motshwene PG et al. 2009; Lin SC et al. 2010). The Myddosome complex transmits the signal leading to activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkB) and activator protein 1 (AP1). Studies have identified patients with autosomal recessive (AR) form of IRAK4 deficiency, a health condition with clinical manifestation in infancy or early childhood, that predisposes affected patients to recurrent pyogenic bacterial infection (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus) (Picard C et al. 2003; Ku CL et al. 2007; Picard C et al. 2010; Picard C et al. 2011). Leukocytes derived from IRAK4-deficient patients display a lack of production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta or a lack of CD62 ligand (CD62L) shedding from granulocytes following activation with flagellin, the TLR5 agonist (Picard C et al. 2003; McDonald DR et al. 2006; Ku CL et al. 2007). Patients with AR IRAK4 deficiency were found to bear homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the IRAK4 gene (Picard C et al. 2003; Ku CL et al. 2007; McDonald DR et al. 2006). Here we describe selective mutations, that have been functionally characterized. Cell-based assays as well as in vitro protein-interaction analyses with IRAK4 variants showed that the loss-of-function of defective IRAK4 can be caused by either an abolished protein production as a result of nonsense mutations (e.g.,Q293X and E402X) or an impaired interaction with MyD88 due to missense mutations (e.g., R12C) (Ku CL et al. 2007; Yamamoto T et al. 2014).

IRAK4 mediates immune responses downstream of all TLRs except for TLR3. Besides defective TLR5 signaling, the Reactome module describes the impact of functional deficiency of IRAK4 on TLR2/4 signaling pathways. We did not include defective TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 signaling events, which are stimulated by nucleic acids upon viral infections, although studies using patients-derived blood cells have showed abolished cytokines production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lack of CD62 ligand (CD62L) shedding from granulocytes in response to TLR7-9 agonists, i.e.,3M-13 (TLR7), 3M-2 (TLR8), R848 (TLR7 and 8) and CpG (TLR9) (McDonald DR et al. 2006; von Bernuth H et al. 2006; Ku CL et al. 2007). In addition to TLR-NFkB signaling axis the endosomic TLR7-9 activate IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma responses, which have been also impaired in IRAK4-deficient PBMC (Yang K et al. 2005). However, IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma production in response to 9 of 11 viruses tested was normal or weakly affected in IRAK-4-deficient blood cells, suggesting that IRAK-4-deficient patients may control viral infections by TLR7-9-independent production of IFNs (Yang K et al. 2005). So it is not yet possible to annotate a definitive molecular pathway between IRAK-4 deficiency and changes in TLR7-9 signaling.

Identifier: R-HSA-5603041
Species: Homo sapiens
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is a serine/threonine kinase, that mediates activation of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and AP1 downstream of IL-1 receptors and all toll like receptors (TLR) except for TLR3 (Suzuki N et al. 2002). IRAK4 is recruited to the TLR receptor complex through a homophilic interaction of the death domains of IRAK4 and adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein (MyD88) (Motshwene PG et al. 2009; Lin SC et al. 2010). Studies have identified patients with an autosomal recessive (AR) form of IRAK4 deficiency, a health condition with clinical manifestation in infancy or early childhood, that predisposes affected patients to recurrent pyogenic bacterial infection (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus) (Picard C et al. 2003; Ku CL et al. 2007; Picard C et al. 2010; Picard C et al. 2011). Leukocytes derived from IRAK4-deficient patients display a lack of production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta by whole blood or a lack of CD62 ligand (CD62L) shedding from granulocytes following activation with the most TLR agonists including those of TLR1/2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR2/6 (Pam2CSK4) and TLR4 (LPS) (Picard C et al. 2003; McDonald DR et al. 2006; Ku CL et al. 2007). However, LPS-induced TLR4-mediated production of some cytokines (IL8 and MIP-1beta) was reduced but not abolished (Ku CL et al. 2007). LPS-stimulated induction of type I IFN via MyD88-IRAK4 independent signaling axis was normal or weakly affected suggesting that TLR4 could induce some responses in IRAK4 deficient patients(Yang K et al. 2005).

Patients with AR IRAK4 deficiency were found to bear homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the IRAK4 gene (Picard C et al. 2003; Ku CL et al. 2007; McDonald DR et al. 2006). Here we describe selected mutations, that have been functionally characterized. Cell-based assay as well as in vitro protein-interaction analyses with IRAK4 variants showed that the loss-of-function of defective IRAK4 is caused by either loss of protein production (reported for IRAK4 Q293X and E402X) or an impaired interaction with MyD88 as shown for missence mutation IRAK4 R12C (Ku CL et al. 2007; Yamamoto T et al. 2014).

Besides defective TLR2/4 mediated signaling, the Reactome module describes the impact of functional deficiency of IRAK4 on TLR5 pathways. The module does not include defective TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 signaling events, which are associated mostly with viral infections, although studies using patient-derived blood cells showed abolished cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lack of CD62 ligand (CD62L) shedding from granulocytes in response to TLR7-9 agonists (McDonald DR et al. 2006; von Bernuth H et al. 2006; Ku CL et al. 2007). In addition to the TLR-NFkB signaling axis, endosomic TLR7-9 activates IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma responses and these are also impaired in IRAK4-deficient PBMC (Yang K et al. 2005). Nevertheless, IFN-alpha/beta and -gamma production in IRAK-4-deficient blood cells in response to 9 of 11 viruses was normal or weakly affected, suggesting that IRAK-4-deficient patients may control viral infections by TLR7-9-independent production of IFNs such as IRAK4-independent antiviral RIGI and MDA5 pathways (Yang K et al. 2005). So it is not yet possible to annotate a definitive molecular pathway between IRAK-4 deficiency and changes in TLR7-9 signaling.

Identifier: R-HSA-5602498
Species: Homo sapiens
Myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates intracellular signaling pathways evoked by all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except for TLR3 and by several interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) (Medzhitov R et al. 1998). Upon ligand binding, TLRs hetero- or homodimerize and recruit MyD88 through their respective TIR domains. Then, MyD88 oligomerizes via its death domain (DD) and TIR domain and interacts with the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) to form the Myddosome complex (MyD88:IRAK4:IRAK1/2) (Motshwene PG et al. 2009; Lin SC et al. 2010). The Myddosome complex transmits the signal leading to activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkB) and activator protein 1 (AP1).

Studies have identified patients with autosomal recessive (AR) form of MyD88 deficiency caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in MYD88 gene leading to abolished protein production (von Bernuth et al. 2008). AR MyD88 deficiency is a type of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by greater susceptibility to pyogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) manifested in infancy and early childhood. Patients with MyD88 deficiency show delayed or weak signs of inflammation (Picard C et al. 2010; Picard C et al. 2011).

Functional assessment of MyD88 deficiency revealed that cytokine responses were impaired in patient-derived blood cells upon stimulation with the agonists of TLR2 and TLR4 (PAM2CSK4 and LPS respectively), although some were produced in response to LPS. (von Bernuth et al. 2008). NFkB luciferase reporter gene assays using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293T) cells showed that MyD88 variants, S34Y, E52del, E53X, L93P, R98C, and R196C, were compromised in their ability to enhance NFkB activation (Yamamoto T et al. 2014). The molecular basis for the observed functional effects (reported for selected mutations) probably faulty Myddosome formation due to impaired MyD88 oligomerization and/or interaction with IRAK4 (George J et al. 2011; Nagpal K et al. 2011; Yamamoto T et al. 2014).

While MyD88-deficiency might be expected to perturb MyD88?IRAK4 dependent TLR7 and TLR8 signaling events associated with the sensing viral infections, patients with MyD88 and IRAK4 deficiencies have so far not been reported to be susceptible to viral infection.

Identifier: R-HSA-5602680
Species: Homo sapiens
Myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates intracellular signaling pathways evoked by all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (except for TLR3) and several interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) (Medzhitov R et al. 1998). Upon ligand binding, TLRs hetero- or homodimerize and recruit MyD88 through their respective TIR domains. Then, MyD88 oligomerizes via its death domain (DD) and TIR domain and interacts with the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) to form the Myddosome complex (MyD88:IRAK4:IRAK1/2) (Motshwene PG et al. 2009; Lin SC et al. 2010). The Myddosome complex transmits the signal leading to activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkB) and activator protein 1 (AP1).

Studies have identified patients with autosomal recessive (AR) form of MyD88 deficiency caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in MYD88 gene leading to abolished protein production (von Bernuth et al. 2008). AR MyD88 deficiency is a type of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by greater susceptibility to pyogenic bacteria such as invasive pneumococcal disease manifested in infancy and early childhood. Patients with MyD88-deficiency show delayed or weak signs of inflammatory responses (Picard C et al. 2010; Picard C et al. 2011).

Functional assessment of MyD88 deficiency revealed that cytokine responses were abolished in patient-derived blood cells upon stimulation with bacterial flagellin, which is recognized by TLR5 (von Bernuth et al. 2008). An NFkB luciferase reporter gene assay using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293T) cells showed that MyD88 variants, S34Y, E52del, E53X, L93P, R98C, and R196C, were compromised in the ability to enhance NFkB activation (Yamamoto T et al. 2014). The molecular basis for the observed functional effects (reported for selected mutations) probably faulty Myddosome formation due to impaired MyD88 oligomerization and/or interaction with IRAK4 (George J et al. 2011; Nagpal K et al. 2011; Yamamoto T et al. 2014).

While MyD88 deficiency might be expected to perturb MyD88?IRAK4 dependent TLR7 and TLR8 signaling events associated with the sensing viral infections in the endosome, patients with MyD88 and IRAK4 deficiencies have so far not been reported to be susceptible to viral infection.

Reaction (4 results from a total of 50)

Identifier: R-HSA-446694
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, plasma membrane
MyD88 recruits unphosphorylated IRAK1 to the signaling complex. IRAK1 is then rapidly activated and autophosphorylates in a region that is outside the kinase domain (Cao et al. 1996). Several pieces of evidence suggest that IRAK4 triggers IRAK1 activation by phosphorylating its kinase activation loop, leading to IRAK1 autophosphorylation (Suzuki et al. 2002): in vitro kinase assays indicate that IRAK1 can be a direct substrate of IRAK4 (Li et al. 2002); IRAK1 phosphorylation by IRAK4 is independent of and precedes IRAK1 activation and autophosphorylation; IRAK1 autophosphorylation is partially inhibited in cells overexpressing a kinase-inactive IRAK4 protein (Li et al. 2002).
Identifier: R-HSA-446634
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, plasma membrane
IRAK4 is activated by autophosphorylation at 3 positions within the kinase activation loop, Thr-342, Thr-345 and Ser-346.
Identifier: R-HSA-446648
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, plasma membrane
MYD88 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that is recruited to the intracellular region of the IL1 receptor complex following IL1 stimulation. MYD88 binds to the complex of the two receptor chains and subsequently to IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4). This complex is the minimum required for signaling (Brikos et al. 2007).
Identifier: R-HSA-937022
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, plasma membrane
IRAK4 is activated by autophosphorylation at 3 positions within the kinase activation loop, Thr-342, Thr-345 and Ser-346.

Interactor (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: Q69FE3
Species: Homo sapiens
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q69FE3

Complex (4 results from a total of 43)

Identifier: R-HSA-451416
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Identifier: R-HSA-451410
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Identifier: R-HSA-166100
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-975183
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endosome membrane

Icon (1 results from a total of 1)

Species: Homo sapiens
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response against foreign pathogens
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