Search results for KMT2C

Showing 10 results out of 14

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Protein (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-1183224
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: KMT2C: Q8NEZ4

Set (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-5619375
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm

Reaction (7 results from a total of 11)

Identifier: R-HSA-6810158
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
During activation of HOXB3 by retimoic acid in fibroblasts (Lan et al. 2007) and embryonal carcinoma cells (Lee et al. 2007) chromatin at HOXB3 loses methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3), loses PRC2, and gains methylation at H3K4. The demethylase KDM6A (UTX) binds HOXB3 chromatin during activation (Lan et al. 2007, Lee et al. 2007) and may participate in demethylating H3K27me3. KDM6A forms complexes with the histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007)
Identifier: R-HSA-6810159
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
During activation of HOXB1 by retinoic acid in human embryonal carcinoma cells, methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) is lost and methylation at lysine-4 (H3K4me3) is gained (Lan et al. 2007, Lee et al. 2007). The histone demethylase KDM6A (UTX) binds HOXB2 chromatin and may demethylate H3K27me3 (Lee et al. 2007). Other factors may also participate in demethylation. Loss of H3K27me3 is associated with loss of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) (Lan et al. 2007, Lee et al. 2007). KDM6A forms complexes with the histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007). The activation of HOXB1 chromatin may be produced by euchromatin spreading from distant 3' retinoic acid response elements.
Identifier: R-HSA-6810139
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
In human cell lines and tissues activation of HOXA2 chromatin by retinoic acid occurs through loss of methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27), dissociation of polycomb repressive complexes, and gain of methylation at H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007 Supplementary, Sakamoto et al. 2007, Sessa et al. 2007). The change in chromatin may be produced by euchromatin spreading from distant 3' retinoic acid response elements. DNA methylation and MBD1 also appear to play a role in maintaining repression at HOXA2 in HeLa cells (Sakamoto et al. 2007). The histone demethylase KDM6A binds HOXA2 (Lee et al. 2007 Supplementary) and may participate in removing H3K27 methylation. KDM6A associates with histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 in embryonal carcinoma cells (Lee et al. 2007, also observed at other HOXA genes in Lan et al. 2007). The conformation of the entire HOXA cluster in the nucleus changes during differentiation of a myeloid leukemia cell line and the conformation changes correlate with gene activity, H3K27me2,3 occurence, and proximity to CTCF binding sites (Rousseau et al. 2014, see also Lonfat and Duboule 2015).
Identifier: R-HSA-5617896
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
As inferred from mouse embryos, retinoic acid activates the HOXD4 gene in rhombomere 7 (r7) by binding RARB or RARA in RAR:RXR receptor dimers bound to a retinoic acid response element (RAREs) in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Ligand binding by retinoic acid receptors causes dismissal of corepressors such as NCOR1 and recruitment of coactivators such as NCOA3 (Klein et al. 2000). The response of HOXD4 to retinoic acid is also observed in human embryonal carcinoma cells (Moroni et al. 1993, Morrison et al. 1996, Morrison et al. 1997). PAX6 binds near the RARE and is required for maximal activation.
In human fibroblasts chromatin at HOXA genes is activated by loss of methylation at lysine-27 (H3K27me3), loss of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and gain of H3K4me3 (Lan et al. 2007). Similar changes occur at Hoxd4 in mouse embryos. The histone demethylase KDM6A (UTX) binds the HOXD4 gene in human lung fibroblasts and may participate in demethylating H3K27me3 (Lan et al. 2007). Other factors may also be involved in demethylation. KDM6A associates with the histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007). As inferred from mouse homologs, PCGF2 (MEL18) dissociates from Hoxd4 during activation. After activation by retinoic acid, HOXD4 maintains its own expression by binding and activating its own promoter.
Identifier: R-HSA-5617859
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
As inferred from mouse embryos, retinoic acid activates the HOXB4 gene in rhombomere 7 (r7) by binding retinoic acid receptor RARB (Folberg et al. 1999) and perhaps RARA in RAR:RXR dimers bound to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) located in the 3' flanking region of the HOXB4 gene, causing dissociation of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators. HOXB4 maintains its own expression by binding and activating its own promoter.
In human fibroblasts activation of chromatin at the HOXB4 gene accompanied by loss of methylation of lysine-27 at histone H3 (H3K27me3, Lan et al. 2007). Based on observations from mouse embryonic stem cells, Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which binds H3K27me3, is anticipated to be lost while methylation of H3K4 is gained, possibly through the action of the histone demethylase KDM6A (UTX) which, in human fibroblasts, binds HOXB4 (Lan et al. 2007). Other factors may be involved in demethylating H3K27me3. KDM6A can form complexes containing the histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007).
Identifier: R-HSA-6810161
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
In human fibroblasts (Lan et al. 2007) and human embryonic carcinoma cells (Lee et al. 2007, Sessa et al. 2007) treated with retinoic acid HOXA3 chromatin is activated by loss of methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) and gain of H3K4me3. KDM6A (UTX) binds near HOXA3 (Lan et al. 2007, Lee et al. 2007) but does not appear to participate in the loss of H3K27me3. KDM6A forms complexes with the histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007). Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which binds H3K27me3, is also lost during activation of HOXA3 (Lan et al. 2007, Lee et al. 2007, Sessa et al. 2007). The change in chromatin at HOXA3 may result from euchromatin spreading from distant 3' retinoic acid response elements. The chromosomal conformation of the entire HOXA cluster changes during activation (Rousseau et al. 2014).
Identifier: R-HSA-5637686
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Trimethylation of lysine-5 of histone H3 (H3K4) has been linked to transcriptional activation in a variety of eukaryotic species (Ruthenberg et al. 2007). Several H3K4 methyltransferases have been identified in mammals, predominantly members of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) protein family. Five of these, KMT2A (MML1), KMT2D (MLL2), KMT2C (MLL3), KMT2B (MLL4) and SETD1A (KMT2F) have been shown to display H3K4 mono-, di- and tri-methyltransferase activity (Milne et al. 2002, Hughes et al. 2004, Cho et al. 2007, Wysocka et al. 2003). KMT2G (SETD1B) is believed to have similar activity on the basis of sequence homology (Ruthenberg et al. 2007). MLLs are a component of large multiprotein complexes that also include WDR5, RBBP5, ASH2 and DPY30, assembled to form the core MLL complex (Nakamura et al. 2002, Hughes et al. 2004, Dou et al. 2006, Tremblay et al. 2014). The WD40 domain of WDR5 recognizes and binds the histone H3 N-terminus, presenting the lysine-4 side chain for methylation by one of the catalytically active MLL family (Couture et al. 2006, Ruthenburg et al. 2006). Histone H3 recognition by WDR5 is regulated by the methylation state of the adjacent arginine (H3R2) residue. H3R2 methylation abolishes WDR5 interaction with the H3 histone tail (Couture et al. 2006); H3K4 di-/trimethylation and H3R2 methylation have an inverse relationship (Guccione et al. 2006). WHSC1L1 (KMT3F, WHISTLE), SMYD3 (KMT3E) and SETD3 are able to di-methylate H3K4 (Kim et al. 2006, Hamamoto et al. 2004, Eom et al. 2011).

Pathway (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-5619507
Species: Homo sapiens
Hox genes encode proteins that contain the DNA-binding homeobox motif and control early patterning of segments in the embryo as well as later events in development (reviewed in Rezsohazy et al. 2015). Mammals have 39 Hox genes arrayed in 4 linear clusters, with each cluster containing 9 to 11 genes. Based on homologies, the genes have been assigned to 13 paralogous groups. The nomenclature of Hox genes uses a letter to indicate the cluster and a number to indicate the paralog group. For example, HOXA4 is the gene in cluster A that is most similar with genes of paralog group 4 from other clusters.
One of the most striking aspects of mammalian Hox gene function is the mechanism of their activation during embryogenesis: the order of genes in a cluster correlates with the timing and location of their activation such that genes at the 3' end of a cluster are activated first and genes at the 5' end of a cluster are activated last. (5' and 3' refer to the transcriptional orientation of the genes in the cluster.) Because development of segments of the embryo proceeds from anterior to posterior this means that the anterior boundaries of expression of 3' genes are more anterior (rostral) and the anterior boundaries of expression of 5' genes are more posterior (caudal). Expression of HOX genes initiates in the posterior primitive streak at the beginning of gastrulation at approximately E7.5 in mouse. As gastrulation proceeds, further 5' genes are sequentially activated and they too undergo the same chromatin changes and migration. After formation of the axis of the embryo, similar waves of activation of HOXA and HOXD clusters occur in developing limbs beginning at about E9. Retinoids, especially all trans retinoic acid (atRA), participate in initiating the process via retinoid receptors. Other factors such as FGFs and Wnt, also regulate Hox expression. After activation, Hox genes participate in maintaining their own expression (autoregulation), activating later, 5' Hox genes, and repressing prior, 3' Hox genes (crossregulation). Differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells in response to retinoic acid is used to model the process in vitro (reviewed in Gudas et al. 2013).
Activation of Hox genes is accompanied by a change from bivalent chromatin to euchromatin (reviewed in Soshnikova and Duboule 2009). Bivalent chromatin has extensive methylation of lysine-9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3), a repressive mark, with interspersed punctate regions of methylation of lysine-4 on histone H3 (H3K4me2, H3K4me3), an activating mark. Euchromatization initiates at the 3' ends of clusters and proceeds towards the 5' ends, with the euchromatin migrating to an active region of the nucleus (reviewed in Montavon and Duboule 2013). This change in chromatin reflects a loss of H3K27me3 and a gain of H3K4me2,3. Polycomb repressive complexes bind H3K27me3 and are responsible for maintenance of repression, KDM6A and KDM6B histone demethylases remove H3K27me3, and members of the trithorax family of histone methylases (KMT2A, KMT2C, KMT2D) methylate H3K4.
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