Search results for NPAS2

Showing 16 results out of 56

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Protein (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-400314
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q99743
Identifier: R-HSA-421309
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: NPAS2: Q99743

Reaction (4 results from a total of 27)

Identifier: R-HSA-1368065
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, cytosol
Transcription of NPAS2 is enhanced by the RORA:Coactivator complex and repressed by the REV-ERBA:Corepressor complex.
Identifier: R-HSA-5663246
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
As inferred from mouse, RORA binds RRE DNA elements and recruits the coactivators PGC-1alpha (PPARGC1A) and p300 (EP300, a histone acetylase). As inferred from mouse, ROR-alpha binds the promoter of the NPAS2 gene and enhances transcription.
Identifier: R-HSA-5663245
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
NR1D1 (REV-ERBA) binds the promoter of the NPAS2 gene and recruits corepressors to repress transcription. Recruitment of repressors appears to depend on the binding of heme by NR1D1.
Identifier: R-HSA-400228
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
BMAL1 (ARNTL), CLOCK, and NPAS2 are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In humans BMAL1 has been demonstrated to form a heterodimer with CLOCK. In mouse, BMAL1 can form a heterodimer with either CLOCK or NPAS2. By analogy with other basic helix-loop-helix proteins the basic domain binds DNA, in this case the E-box motif, and the helix-loop-helix domains interact to form the heterodimer. BMAL1 and CLOCK/NPAS2 are codependently phosphorylated by unknown kinases after dimerization. The phosphorylation enhances transactivation activity and is inhibited by PER:CRY complexes. Both CLOCK and NPAS2 are expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and act redundantly there. The tissue distributions of CLOCK and NPAS2 do not entirely overlap, however. For example, NPAS2 but not CLOCK is found in forebrain.

DNA Sequence (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-5640176
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: ENSEMBL: ENSG00000170485

Set (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-421319
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Identifier: R-HSA-400343
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol

Complex (4 results from a total of 21)

Identifier: R-HSA-400360
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
BMAL1 (ARNTL) contains both a nuclear localization signal and a nuclear export signal. The shuttling of BMAL1 between the nucleus and cytoplasm is important for transactivation by BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 and degradation of BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2. BMAL1 initially forms a heterodimer with CLOCK or NPAS2 in the cytosol. The heterodimer is then phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus.
Identifier: R-HSA-421315
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Identifier: R-HSA-400273
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Identifier: R-HSA-549449
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol

Pathway (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-1368108
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, extracellular region, endoplasmic reticulum lumen, cytosol
As inferred from mouse, BMAL1:CLOCK (ARNTL:CLOCK) and BMAL1:NPAS2 (ARNTL:NPAS2) heterodimers bind to sequence elements (E boxes) in the promoters of target genes and enhance transcription (Gekakis et al. 1998, reviewed in Munoz and Baler 2003).
Identifier: R-HSA-400253
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, cytosol
At the center of the mammalian circadian clock is a negative transcription/translation-based feedback loop: The BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 (ARNTL:CLOCK/NPAS2) heterodimer transactivates CRY and PER genes by binding E-box elements in their promoters; the CRY and PER proteins then inhibit transactivation by BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2. BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 activates transcription of CRY, PER, and several other genes in the morning. Levels of PER and CRY proteins rise during the day and inhibit expression of CRY, PER, and other BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2-activated genes in the afternoon and evening. During the night CRY and PER proteins are targeted for degradation by phosphorylation and polyubiquitination, allowing the cycle to commence again in the morning.
Transcription of the BMAL1 (ARNTL) gene is controlled by ROR-alpha and REV-ERBA (NR1D1), both of which are targets of BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 in mice and both of which compete for the same element (RORE) in the BMAL1 promoter. ROR-alpha (RORA) activates transcription of BMAL1; REV-ERBA represses transcription of BMAL1. This mutual control forms a secondary, reinforcing loop of the circadian clock. REV-ERBA shows strong circadian rhythmicity and confers circadian expression on BMAL1.
BMAL1 can form heterodimers with either CLOCK or NPAS2, which act redundantly but show different tissue specificity. The BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 heterodimers activate a set of genes that possess E-box elements (consensus CACGTG) in their promoters. This confers circadian expression on the genes. The PER genes (PER1, PER2, PER3) and CRY genes (CRY1, CRY2) are among those activated by BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2. PER and CRY mRNA accumulates during the morning and the proteins accumulate during the afternoon. PER and CRY proteins form complexes in the cytosol and these are bound by either CSNK1D or CSNK1E kinases which phosphorylate PER and CRY. The phosphorylated PER:CRY:kinase complex is translocated into the nucleus due to the nuclear localization signal of PER and CRY. Within the nucleus the PER:CRY complexes bind BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2, inhibiting their transactivation activity and their phosphorylation. This reduces expression of the target genes of BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 during the afternoon and evening.
PER:CRY complexes also traffic out of the nucleus into the cytosol due to the nuclear export signal of PER. During the night PER:CRY complexes are polyubiquitinated and degraded, allowing the cycle to begin again. Phosphorylated PER is bound by Beta-TrCP1, a cytosolic F-box type component of some SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. CRY is bound by FBXL3, a nucleoplasmic F-box type component of some SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. Phosphorylation of CRY1 by Adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) enhances degradation of CRY1. PER and CRY are subsequently polyubiquitinated and proteolyzed by the 26S proteasome.
The circadian clock is cell-autonomous and some, but not all cells of the body exhibit circadian rhythms in metabolism, cell division, and gene transcription. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is the major clock in the body and receives its major input from light (via retinal neurons) and a minor input from nutrient intake. The SCN and other brain tissues determine waking and feeding cycles and influence the clocks in other tissues by hormone secretion and nervous stimulation. Independently of the SCN, other tissues such as liver receive inputs from signals from the brain and from nutrients.

Icon (1 results from a total of 1)

Species: Homo sapiens
Curator: Bruce May
Designer: Cristoffer Sevilla
NPAS2 icon
Neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 2
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