Search results for PAX6

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Protein (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-3009044
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: PAX6: P26367

Reaction (4 results from a total of 4)

Identifier: R-HSA-211272
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The PDX1 (IPF1) gene is transcribed, its mRNA is translated, and the protein product is transported to the nucleus. PDX1 transcription is positively regulated by the activities of the FOXA2, MAFA, and PAX6 transcription factors. It is negatively regulated by FOXO1A, so events that deplete the nucleoplasmic pool of FOXO1A increase expression of PDX1. These events and interactions have not been studied directly in humans, but are inferred from corresponding ones worked out in the mouse.
Identifier: R-HSA-211289
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The INS1 gene, encoding insulin precursor protein, is transcribed and its mRNA is translated on membrane-associated ribosomes. INS1 transcription is positively regulated by the activities of the MAFA, NKX2-2, PAX6, and PDX1 transcription factors. These events and interactions are inferred from corresponding ones studied in molecular detail in the mouse.
Identifier: R-HSA-400500
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The transcription factors PDX-1 and PAX6 binds the promoter of the human GIP gene between 145 and 184 nucleotides upstream of the start of transcription and enhance transcription of GIP. In mouse Pdx-1 also increases the number of GIP-producing K cells. Consensus binding sites for other transcription factors such as AP-1, AP-2, and Sp1 have been identified in the promoter of the GIP gene but their role is unknown. The human GIP promoter is responsive to cAMP by an unknown mechanism.
Identifier: R-HSA-5617896
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
As inferred from mouse embryos, retinoic acid activates the HOXD4 gene in rhombomere 7 (r7) by binding RARB or RARA in RAR:RXR receptor dimers bound to a retinoic acid response element (RAREs) in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Ligand binding by retinoic acid receptors causes dismissal of corepressors such as NCOR1 and recruitment of coactivators such as NCOA3 (Klein et al. 2000). The response of HOXD4 to retinoic acid is also observed in human embryonal carcinoma cells (Moroni et al. 1993, Morrison et al. 1996, Morrison et al. 1997). PAX6 binds near the RARE and is required for maximal activation.
In human fibroblasts chromatin at HOXA genes is activated by loss of methylation at lysine-27 (H3K27me3), loss of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and gain of H3K4me3 (Lan et al. 2007). Similar changes occur at Hoxd4 in mouse embryos. The histone demethylase KDM6A (UTX) binds the HOXD4 gene in human lung fibroblasts and may participate in demethylating H3K27me3 (Lan et al. 2007). Other factors may also be involved in demethylation. KDM6A associates with the histone methyltransferases KMT2C,D (MLL2,3) which may participate in methylating H3K4 (Lee et al. 2007). As inferred from mouse homologs, PCGF2 (MEL18) dissociates from Hoxd4 during activation. After activation by retinoic acid, HOXD4 maintains its own expression by binding and activating its own promoter.

Pathway (3 results from a total of 3)

Identifier: R-HSA-9010553
Species: Homo sapiens
Expression of SLIT and ROBO proteins is regulated at the level of transcription, translation and protein localization and stability. LIM-homeodomain transcription factors LHX2, LHX3, LHX4, LHX9 and ISL1 have so far been implicated in a cell type-dependent transcriptional regulation of ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3 and SLIT2 (Wilson et al. 2008, Marcos-Mondejar et al. 2012, Kim et al. 2016). Homeobox transcription factor HOXA2 is involved in transcriptional regulation of ROBO2 (Geisen et al. 2008). Transcription of SLIT1 during optic tract development in Xenopus is stimulated by FGF signaling and may also involve the transcription factor HOXA2, but the mechanism has not been established (Atkinson-Leadbeater et al. 2010). PAX6 and the homeodomain transcription factor NKX2.2 are also implicated in regulation of SLIT1 transcription (Genethliou et al. 2009). An RNA binding protein, MSI1, binds ROBO3 mRNA and promotes its translation, thus increasing ROBO3 protein levels (Kuwako et al. 2010). A poorly studied E3 ubiquitin ligase ZSWIM8 promotes degradation of ROBO3 (Wang et al. 2013). ROBO1 is protein half-life is increased via deubiquitination of ROBO1 by a ubiquitin protease USP33 (Yuasa-Kawada et al. 2009, Huang et al. 2015). Interaction of SLIT2 with DAG1 (dystroglycan) is important for proper localization of SLIT2 at the floor plate (Wright et al. 2012). Interaction of SLIT1 with a type IV collagen COL4A5 is important for localization of SLIT1 to the basement membrane of the optical tectum (Xiao et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-210745
Species: Homo sapiens
Two transcription factors, PDX1 and HNF1A, play key roles in maintaining the gene expression pattern characteristic of mature beta cells in the endocrine pancreas. Targets of these regulatory molecules include genes encoding insulin, the GLUT2 glucose transporter, the liver- (and pancreas) specific form of pyruvate kinase and other transcription factors including HNF4A, HNF4G, and FOXA3. PDX1 expression in turn is controlled by the activities of MAFA, FOXA2, and PAX6, and negatively regulated via AKT (Chakrabarti and Mirmira 2003; Servitja and Ferrer 2004).
Identifier: R-HSA-400511
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, endoplasmic reticulum lumen, secretory granule lumen, plasma membrane, extracellular region
In K cells of the intestine the transcription factors PAX6 and PDX-1 activate transcription of the gene encoding Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP, first called Gastric Inhibitory Peptide). ProGIP is cleaved in secretory granules by Prohormone Convertase 1 (PC1) at 2 sites to yield mature GIP. In response to fat the GIP is secreted into the bloodstream. The half-life of GIP in the bloodstream is determined by Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV, which cleaves 2 amino acids at the amino terminus of GIP, rendering it biologically inactive.

Icon (1 results from a total of 1)

Species: Homo sapiens
Curator: Bruce May
Designer: Cristoffer Sevilla
PAX6 icon
Paired box protein Pax-6
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