Search results for PROC

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Reaction (30 results from a total of 109)

Identifier: R-HSA-159795
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen, endoplasmic reticulum membrane
GGCX (gamma glutamyl carboxylase) in the endoplasmic reticulum gamma-carboxylates eight glutamate residues on 3D-PROC(33-197) (pro-protein C light chain). MK4 (vitamin K hydroquinone) is oxidized to MK4 epoxide in the process (Berkner 2000; Furie et al. 1999; Stenina et al. 2001; Morris et al. 1995).
Identifier: R-HSA-933523
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, mitochondrial outer membrane
Procaspase-8/10 undergo dimerization and the subsequent conformational changes at the receptor complex results in the formation of catalytic active caspase dimers.
Identifier: R-HSA-141040
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region, plasma membrane
Thrombin complexed with thrombomodulin at the endothelial cell surface cleaves the heavy chain of protein C, generating activated protein C and an activation peptide. The activation peptide has no known function.
Identifier: R-HSA-933532
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, mitochondrial outer membrane
Processing of caspases is required for activation of downstream signaling and dsRNA stimulation inducese the processing of these caspases. The nonapoptotic caspase function of both caspase-8 and -10 does not require the protease activity and the DED-containing prodomains are sufficient for NF-kB activation.
Identifier: R-HSA-1614461
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
Collagen VI dimers combine to form tetramers before secretion (Furthmayr et al. 1983, von der Mark et al. 1984, Engel et al. 1985, Engvall et al. 1986, Colombatti et al. 1987). Collagen type VI chains are extensively post translationally modifed by the hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues (Myllyharju & Kivirikko 2004) and subsequent glycosylation of hydroxylysine, thought to be essential for tetramer formation and secretion (Sipila et al. 2007).
Identifier: R-HSA-1433374
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane, extracellular region
SCF exists as two alternatively spliced variants, a soluble form and a membrane-bound form differing in one exon (exon 6). Both isoforms are initially membrane bound with an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment and an intracellular region. The longer isoform is rapidly cleaved to generate a 165 aa soluble protein knows as sSCF. The SCF transcript that lacks exon 6 encodes a glycoprotein that remains membrane-bound (mSCF). Both mSCF and sSCF are bioactive but different in their efficacy in c-kit activation.
Proteases including matrix metalloprotease-9 (Heissig et al., 2002), Chymase-1 (Longley et al., 1997) and several members of the ADAMs family (Kawaguchi et al, 2007; Amour et al, 2002; Chesneau et al, 2003; Mohan et al, 2002; Roghani et al, 1999; Zou et al, 2004) have been suggested to have a role in the processing of sSCF.
Identifier: R-HSA-69074
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The loading of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) leads to recruitment of pol delta, the process of polymerase switching. Human PCNA is a homotrimer of 36 kDa subunits that form a toroidal structure. The loading of PCNA by RFC is a key event in the transition from the priming mode to the extension mode of DNA synthesis. The processive complex is composed of the pol delta holoenzyme and PCNA (Murakami et al.2010). Both PCNA and the DNA polymerase delta are needed for telomeric C-strand synthesis in a human telomere replication model (Lormand et al. 2013).
Identifier: R-HSA-844617
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
IPAF contains an N-terminal CARD domain, a central nucleotide-binding domain, and a C-terminal regulatory leucine-rich repeat domain. IPAF associates with the CARD domain of procaspase-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction.
Identifier: R-HSA-1678920
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endolysosome membrane
Endosome maturation (acidification) is required for both the activation of TLR9 and TLR7 through proteolytic cleavage and the disassembly of pathogens, thereby releasing the TLR ligands within them. TLR7 and TLR9 are cleaved within their ectodomains by pH-sensitive cysteine endopeptidases. Cathepsins (CTS) B, K, L, and S, and asparagine endopeptidase (AEP, also known as legumain) have been implicated in endolysosomal TLR processing, however, several groups have reported somewhat controversial results on the role of specific proteases (Matsumoto F et al 2008, Park B et al 2008, Ewald SE et al 2008, Ewald SE et al 2011, Sepulveda FE et al 2009).

One study showed that TLR9 proteolysis is a multistep process with the initial cleavage that can be mediated by AEP or multiple members of the cathepsin family. The second event is mediated exclusively by cathepsins. TLR7 and TLR3 were reported to be cleaved in a similar manner (Ewald SE et al 2011). Cleavage of TLR3 is not shown in this reaction, since other studies demonstrated that the N-terminal region of TLR3 ectodomain was implicated in ligand binding, suggesting that TLR3 may function as a full-length receptor (Liu L et al 2008, Tokisue T et al 2008).

Both full-length receptor and cleaved fragment corresponding to the C-terminal part of TLR9 were capable to bind ligand, however only the processed form (TLR9 C-ter, aa 471-1032) was shown to bind MyD88 and induce signaling in different mouse cells (Ewald SE et al 2008).

Identifier: R-HSA-139952
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol, plasma membrane
Caspase-8 zymogens are present in the cells as inactive monomers, containing a large N-terminal prodomain with two death effector domains (DED), and a C-terminal catalytic subunit composed of small and a large domains separated by a smaller linker region [Donepudi M et al 2003; Keller N et al 2009]. Dimerization is required for the caspase-8 activation [Donepudi M et al 2003]. Once dimerized, caspase-8 zymogen undergoes a series of autoproteolytic cleavage events at aspartic acid residues in their interdomain linker regions. A second cleavage event between the the N-terminal prodomain and the catalytic domain releases the active caspase from the activation complex into the cytosol. The resulting fully active enzyme is a homodimer of catalytic domains, where each domain is composed of a large p18 and a small p10 subunit [Keller N et al 2009; Oberst A et al 2010].
Identifier: R-HSA-114252
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Caspases-3 and -7 are directly cleaved downstream of caspase-9 in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1-inducible caspase cascade (Slee et al., 1999).
Identifier: R-HSA-114259
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Procaspase‑9 is processed in an ATP‑dependent manner following association with APAF1 and cytochrome c (CYCS) within the apoptosome complex (Li P et al. 1997). However, caspase‑9 (CASP9) has an unusually active zymogen that does not require proteolytic processing (Stennicke HR et al. 1999). Though dispensable for catalytic activity, CASP9 processing was suggested to serve as a "molecular timer" that can limit the proteolytic activity of this complex through displacement of bound caspase‑9 molecules (Malladi S et al. 2009). In addition, this cleavage exposes a neo‑epitope comprising the NH2‑terminal four amino acids (ATPF) of the small p12 subunit of CASP9 that has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for binding to the baculovirus IAP repeat 3 (BIR3) domain of XIAP, leading to inhibition of CASP9 activity (Srinivasula SM et al. 2001; Shiozaki EN et al. 2003).
Identifier: R-HSA-9627056
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
CASP9 is normally present as an inactive monomeric propeptide (procaspase‑9 or zymogen). Upon apoptosis, the N‑terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of procaspase‑9 binds to the exposed CARD of the apoptotic protease‑activating factor‑1 (APAF1) through homotypic interactions (Qin H et al. 1999). Procaspase-9 has been estimated to bind to the apoptosome with ratios between 2–5 zymogens per 7 APAF:cytochrome c (CYCS) molecules (Cheng TC et al. 2016). The function of the apoptosome is to promote homodimerization of CASP9 (Jiang X and Wang X 2000; Srinivasula SM et al. 2001; Shiozaki EN et al. 2002). While activation of CASP9 involves dimerization, proteolytic cleavage of CASP9 may not be required. The unprocessed CASP9 exhibited high catalytic activity (Renatus et al. 2001; Acehan D et al. 2002). Furthermore, unlike other initiator caspases, including caspases‑2, ‑8 and ‑10, the prodomain of CASP9 is not removed during apoptosis; in fact, CASP9 (in both its procaspase‑9 and processed forms) must remain bound to the apoptosome to retain substantial catalytic activity (Bratton et al. 2001; Rodriguez and Lazebnik 1999). Once activated in the apoptosome, CASP9 dimer cleaves and activates procaspase‑3 and ‑7.
Identifier: R-HSA-114256
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
The protease caspase‑9 (CASP9) is normally present as an inactive monomeric propeptide (procaspase‑9 or zymogen). Upon apoptosis procaspase‑9 (CASP9(1‑416) is recruited to APAF1:cytochrome C (CYCS):ATP complex to form the caspase‑activating apoptosome (Hu Q et al. 2014; Cheng TC et al. 2016). The cryo-EM structures have established that the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) of APAF1 mediates the heptameric oligomerization of APAF1, while its tryptophan-aspartic acid (WD40) domain interacts with CYCS (Yuan S & Akey CW 2013). The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of APAF1 recruits the N‑terminal CARD of CASP9(1‑416) through homotypic CARD:CARD interactions (Li P et al. 1997; Qin H et al. 1999; Yuan S et al. 2010; Yuan S & Akey CW 2013). These homotypic interaction motifs are thought to interact with each other through three types of interfaces, type I, II, and III, which cooperate to generate homo- and hetero-oligomers from relatively small assemblies to open-ended filaments (Ferrao R & Wu H 2012). Structural and mutagenesis studies showed that all type I, II, and III interfaces are involved in the caspase-9 activation by APAF1-mediated helical oligomerization of CARDs (Hu Q et al. 2014; Cheng TC et al. 2016; Su TW et al. 2017; Li Y et al. 2017). Cryo-EM structure of the holo-apoptosome revealed an oligomeric CARD disk above the heptameric apoptosome ring with estimated molecular ratios between 2-5 zymogens per 7 APAF1 molecules (Hu Q et al. 2014; Cheng TC et al. 2016). The structural and biochemical studies showed that APAF1-CARD and CASP9-CARD initially formed a 1:1 complex in solution, which at higher concentrations is further oligomerized into a 3:3 complex. The 3:3 complex was reported as a core arrangement of the 4:3 or 4:4 APAF1-CARD:CASP9-CARD complex in the helical assembly of the CARD disk (Cheng TC et al. 2016; Su TW et al. 2017; Li Y et al. 2017; Dorstyn L et al. 2018). Thus, APAF1:CASP9 (1-416) heterodimers may be recruted to the assembling apoptosome as part of its activation.

The Reactome event describes the apoptosome assembly with the stoichiometry of 4 procaspase-9 zymogens per 7 APAF1 molecules. The formation of 1:1 and other combinations of APAF1:CASP9(1-416) complexes is not shown.

Identifier: R-HSA-114261
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Caspases-3 and -7 are directly cleaved downstream of caspase-9 in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1-inducible caspase cascade (Slee et al., 1999).
Identifier: R-HSA-1678981
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endolysosome membrane
TLR9 traffics to an endosomal vesicle where it is processed by cathepsin S at neural pH to generate an N-terminal product (TLR9 N-ter, aa 1-723). The N-terminal fragment of TLR9 also binds ligand, but in contrast to the C-terminal fragment it inhibits TLR9 signaling. Thus, a proper balance between the two proteolytic events probably regulates TLR9-mediated host responses. (Chockalingam A et al 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-5591052
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region, plasma membrane
Physiological activation of protein C on the endothelial cell surface requires the binding of protein C to the endothelial protein C receptor PROCR (EPCR) as well as binding of thrombin to thrombomodulin (TM) (Stavenuiter et al. 2013). PROCR binding to protein C (Fukudome & Esmon 1994) augments by at least 5-fold the effect of thrombin-thrombomodulin on the rate of protein C activation (Stearns-Kurosawa et al. 1996, Taylor et al. 2001).
Identifier: R-HSA-376149
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
The full length SLIT proteins are secreted and, when not bound to ROBO receptors, are indirectly associated with the plasma membrane via the extracellular matrix proteins. These full length SLITs undergo posttranslational modification and proteolytic processing to generate an N-terminal fragment (SLIT2-N) and a corresponding C-terminal fragment (SLIT2-C). SLIT2 is cleaved within the EGF repeats, between EGF5 and EGF6, by unknown proteases. Cleavage of SLIT proteins is evolutionarily conserved, although the molecular biological significance is unknown. The N-terminal fragment of SLIT2 stimulates growth and branching of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) axons, and this activity is opposed by un-cleaved SLIT. The stimulation of axon branching is mediated by ROBO receptors. Additional functional differences between the full-length and N-terminal forms have been discovered in their abilities to repel different populations of axons and dendrites. Finally, SLIT can attract migrating muscles in the fly, and also human endothelial cells, both via ROBO receptors (Brose et al. 1999, Wang et al. 1999).

SLIT C-terminal fragments may transduce signaling independently of ROBO receptors and Neuropilins (semaphorin receptors) by directly binding to Plexin A1 (Delloye-Bourgeois et al. 2015).

Identifier: R-HSA-9698932
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The procapsid shell is made up of major capsid proteins (MCP)-containing capsomeres, with six copies of MCP per hexon and five copies of MCP per penton. One of the 12 pentons in each capsid is composed entirely of portal protein (PORT), the UL104 protein, a self-assembling homododecamer. The PORT penton provides a channel for viral DNA encapsidation. Triplex (TRI) complex TRI1:TRI2 is added to stabilize hexons and pentons, and small capsid protein (SCP )decorates the outer capsid surface, interacting with MCP at hexon tips.
Before the capsid has aquired the genome, it is designated a B capsid. Three capsid forms accumulate in the nucleus of herpesvirus-infected cells: A capsids that lack both scaffold and packaged viral DNA, B capsids that contain scaffold but lack viral DNA, and C capsids, contains viral DNA in place of scaffold and probably represents nucleocapsids in the process of maturation.
Identifier: R-HSA-5483238
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum membrane, cytosol
Processing-defective SHH variants are ubiquitinated by SYVN1 (Chen et al, 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-2129357
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Extracellular deposition of fibrillin requires removal of the C-terminus, which can be cleaved in vitro by several furin/PACE family convertases (Raghunath et al. 1999, Ritty et al. 1999) in a process that is inhibited by N-glycosylation and calreticulin (Ashworth et al. 1999). Furin (PACE) is a transmembrane protein, synthesized as a 100 kDa protein, which rapidly undergoes autocatalytic cleavage to a 94 kDa protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The propeptide remains bound as an auto-inhibitor. Propeptide release occurs in the acidic pH of the trans-golgi-network (TGN)/endosomal compartment, activating furin. Though furin is primarily localized to the TGN a proportion of furin molecules are found on the cell surface (Teuchert et al. 1999). Profibrillin-1 processing does not occur in the TGN, where it is bound by two ER-resident molecular chaperones, BiP and GRP94. Instead activation by furin occurs as profibrillin-1 is secreted, or immediately after secretion (Wallis et al. 2003).
Identifier: R-HSA-1614460
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
Collagen type VI forms dimers and tetramers before secretion (Furthmayr et al. 1983, von der Mark et al. 1984, Engel et al. 1985, Colombatti et al. 1987). The monomers associate in antiparallel with a 30nm axial shift, intertwining 4 or 5 times (Furthmayr et al. 1983). These associate laterally to form tetramers (Furthmayr et al. 1983, von der Mark et al. 1984)The tetramers associate to form microfibrils in a non-covalent manner, presumed to be mediated through A domain interactions (Baldock et al. 2003). Collagen type VI chains are extensively post translationally modifed by the hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues (Myllyharju & Kivirikko 2004) and subsequent glycosylation of hydroxylysine, thought to be essential for tetramer formation and secretion (Sipila et al. 2007).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944265
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The C-terminal propeptide is essential for the association of three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944266
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The propeptide C-terminal region is needed for association of the three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944262
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The propeptide C-terminal region is required for association of three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944263
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The propeptide C-terminal region is essential for the association of three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944216
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The C-terminal propeptide region is required for association of the three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944223
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The C-terminal region of the propeptide is required for the association of three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944214
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The C-propeptides are essential for the association of three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
Identifier: R-HSA-8944215
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: endoplasmic reticulum lumen
The C-terminal propeptide region is necessary for association of the three alpha chains into a trimeric non-helical procollagen. Alignment determines the composition of the trimer, brings the individual chains into the correct register and initiates formation of the triple helix at the C-terminus, which then proceeds to the N-terminus in a zipper-like fashion (Engel & Prockop 1991). Most early refolding studies were performed with collagen type III which contains a disulfide linkage at the C-terminus of its triple helix (Bächinger et al. 1978, Bruckner et al. 1978) that acts as a permanent linker even after removal of the non-collagenous domains.

Mutations within the C-propeptides further suggest that they are crucial for the correct interaction of the three polypeptide chains and for subsequent correct folding (refs. in Boudko et al. 2011).
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