Search results for RNF111

Showing 13 results out of 19

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Protein (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-2186765
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: RNF111: Q6ZNA4
Identifier: R-HSA-975981
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Primary external reference: UniProt: RNF111: Q6ZNA4

Reaction (5 results from a total of 11)

Identifier: R-HSA-6790487
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
SUMOylated XPC is recognized by the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF111 (Arcadia) that, together with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating complex of UBE2N (UBC13) and UBE2V2 (MMS2), generates K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on XPC (Poulsen et al. 2013) to efficiently release XPC from UV lesions (van Cuijk et al. 2015). The release of K63-polyubiquitinated XPC occurs from GG-NER pre-incision complexes that contain TFIIH and XPA and promotes optimal access/binding of ERCC5 (XPG) endonuclease to the pre-incision complex (van Cuijk et al. 2015). Successful binding of ERCC5 endonuclease 3' to the damage facilitates binding of the ERCC1:ERCC4 (ERCC1:XPF) endonuclease and progression of the NER reaction.
Identifier: R-HSA-2186785
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
RNF111 (Arkadia) polyubiquitinates SMAD7 (Koinuma et al. 2003). This was inferred from studies using recombinant mouse Smad7 and recombinant mouse Rnf111 expressed in human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293.
Identifier: R-HSA-2186771
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF111 (Arkadia) binds SMAD7 in the nucleus (Koinuma et al. 2003).
Identifier: R-NUL-2186775
Species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Recombinant mouse Rnf111 (Arkadia) exogneously expressed in human HEK293 cells polyubiquitinates recombinant mouse Smad7 (Koinuma et al. 2003).
Identifier: R-NUL-2186755
Species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Recombinant mouse Rnf111 (Arkadia), recruited to recombinant human SKI/SKIL bound to TGF-beta-activated SMAD2/3, ubiquitinates SKI/SKIL transcriptional repressors (Levy et al. 2007, Nagano et al. 2007).

Interactor (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: Q6ZNA4-2
Species: Homo sapiens
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q6ZNA4-2

Complex (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-2186769
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm

Set (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-2186743
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm

Pathway (3 results from a total of 3)

Identifier: R-HSA-8951664
Species: Homo sapiens
NEDD8 is a small ubiquitin-like molecule that is conjugated to substrate proteins through an E1 to E3 enzyme cascade similar to that for ubiquitin. The best characterized target of neddylation is the cullin scaffold subunit of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), which themselves target numerous cellular proteins for degradation by the proteasome (Hori et al, 1999; reviewed in Soucy et al, 2010; Lyedeard et al, 2013). The multisubunit CRL complexes are compositionally diverse, but each contains a scaffolding cullin protein (CUL1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 5, 7 or 9) and a RING box-containing E3 ligase subunit RBX, along with other adaptor and substrate-interacting subunits. RBX2 (also known as RNF7) interacts preferentially with CUL5, while RBX1 is the primary E3 for most other cullin family members (reviewed in Mahon et al, 2014). Neddylation of the cullin subunit increases the ubiquitination activity of the CRL complex (Podust et al, 2000; Read et al, 2000; Wu et al, 2000; Kawakami et al, 2001; Ohh et al, 2002; Yu et al, 2015). In addition to CRL complexes, a number of other less-well characterized NEDD8 targets have been identified. These include other E3 ubiquitin ligases such as SMURF1 and MDM2, receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR and TGF beta RII, and proteins that contribute to transcriptional regulation, among others (Xie et al, 2014; Watson et al, 2010; Oved et al, 2006; Zuo et al, 2013; Xirodimas et al, 2004; Singh et al, 2007; Abida et al, 2007; Liu et al 2010; Watson et al, 2006; Loftus et al, 2012; Aoki et al, 2013; reviewed in Enchev et al, 2015).
Like ubiquitin, NEDD8 undergoes post-translational processing to generate the mature form. UCHL3- or SENP8-mediated proteolysis removes the C-terminal 5 amino acids of NEDD8, generating a novel C-terminal glycine residue for conjugation to the cysteine residues in the E1, E2 enzymes or lysine residues in the substrate protein, usually the E3 NEDD8 ligase itself (Wada et al, 1998; reviewed in Enchev et al, 2015). Most substrates in vivo appear to be singly neddylated on one or more lysine residues, but NEDD8 chains have been formed on cullin substrates in vitro and on histone H4 in cultured human cells after DNA damage (Jones et al, 2008; Ohki et al, 2009; Xirodimas et al, 2008; Jeram et al, 2010; Ma et al, 2013; reviewed in Enchev et al, 2015). The significance of NEDD8 chains is still not clear.
NEDD8 has a single heterodimeric E1 enzyme, consisting of NAE1 (also known as APPBP1) and UBA3, and two E2 enzymes, UBE2M and UBE2F, which are N-terminally acetylated (Walden et al, 2003; Bohnsack et al, 2003; Huang et al, 2004; Huang et al, 2005; Huang et al, 2009; Scott et al, 2011a; Monda et al, 2013; reviewed in Enchev et al, 2015). All NEDD8 E3 enzymes reported to date also function as E3 ubiquitin ligases, and most belong to the RING domain class. The best characterized NEDD8 E3 enzymes are the CRL complexes described above. RBX1-containing complexes interact preferentially with UBE2M, while UBE2F is the E2 for RBX2-containing complexes (Huang et al, 2009; Monda et al, 2013).
Neddylation is regulated in vivo by interaction with DCUN1D proteins (also called DCNLs). The 5 human DCUN1D proteins interact both with cullins and with the NEDD8 E2 proteins and thereby increase the kinetic efficiency of neddylation (Kurz et al, 2005; Kurz et al, 2008; Scott et al, 2010; Scott et al, 2011a; Scott et al, 2014; Monda et al, 2013). Glomulin (GLMN) is another regulator of CRL function that binds to the neddylated cullin and competitively inhibits interaction with the ubiquitin E2 enzyme (Arai et al, 2003; Tron et al, 2012; Duda et al, 2012; reviewed in Mahon et al, 2014).
The multisubunit COP9 signalosome is the only cullin deneddylase, while SENP8 (also known as DEN1) contributes to deneddylation of other non-cullin NEDD8 targets (Cope et al, 2002; Emberley et al, 2012; Chan et al, 2008; Wu et al, 2003; reviewed in Wei et al, 2008; Enchev et al, 2015). In the deneddylated state, cullins bind to CAND1 (cullin associated NEDD8-dissociated protein1), which displaces the COP9 signalosome and promotes the exchange of the ubiquitin substrate-specific adaptor. This allows CRL complexes to be reconfigured to target other subtrates for ubiquitination (Liu et al, 2002; Schmidt et al, 2009; Pierce et al, 2013; reviewed in Mahon et al, 2014).

Identifier: R-HSA-2173796
Species: Homo sapiens
After phosphorylated SMAD2 and/or SMAD3 form a heterotrimer with SMAD4, SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex translocates to the nucleus (Xu et al. 2000, Kurisaki et al. 2001, Xiao et al. 2003). In the nucleus, linker regions of SMAD2 and SMAD3 within SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex can be phosphorylated by CDK8 associated with cyclin C (CDK8:CCNC) or CDK9 associated with cyclin T (CDK9:CCNT). CDK8/CDK9-mediated phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 enhances transcriptional activity of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex, but also primes it for ubiquitination and consequent degradation (Alarcon et al. 2009).

The transfer of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex to the nucleus can be assisted by other proteins, such as WWTR1. In human embryonic cells, WWTR1 (TAZ) binds SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer and mediates TGF-beta-dependent nuclear accumulation of SMAD2/3:SMAD4. The complex of WWTR1 and SMAD2/3:SMAD4 binds promoters of SMAD7 and SERPINE1 (PAI-1 i.e. plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) genes and stimulates their transcription (Varelas et al. 2008). Stimulation of SMAD7 transcription by SMAD2/3:SMAD4 represents a negative feedback loop in TGF-beta receptor signaling. SMAD7 can be downregulated by RNF111 ubiquitin ligase (Arkadia), which binds and ubiquitinates SMAD7, targeting it for degradation (Koinuma et al. 2003).

SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer also binds the complex of RBL1 (p107), E2F4/5 and TFDP1/2 (DP1/2). The resulting complex binds MYC promoter and inhibits MYC transcription. Inhibition of MYC transcription contributes to anti-proliferative effect of TGF-beta (Chen et al. 2002). SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer also associates with transcription factor SP1. SMAD2/3:SMAD4:SP1 complex stimulates transcription of a CDK inhibitor CDKN2B (p15-INK4B), also contributing to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-beta (Feng et al. 2000).

MEN1 (menin), a transcription factor tumor suppressor mutated in a familial cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, forms a complex with SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer, but transcriptional targets of SMAD2/3:SMAD4:MEN1 have not been elucidated (Kaji et al. 2001, Sowa et al. 2004, Canaff et al. 2012).

JUNB is also an established transcriptional target of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex (Wong et al. 1999).
Identifier: R-HSA-2173795
Species: Homo sapiens
Transcriptional activity of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer can be inhibited by formation of a complex with SKI or SKIL (SNO), where SKI or SKIL recruit NCOR and possibly other transcriptional repressors to SMAD-binding promoter elements (Sun et al. 1999, Luo et al. 1999, Strochein et al. 1999). Higher levels of phosphorylated SMAD2 and SMAD3, however, may target SKI and SKIL for degradation (Strochein et al. 1999, Sun et al. 1999 PNAS, Bonni et al. 2001) through recruitment of SMURF2 (Bonni et al. 2001) or RNF111 i.e. Arkadia (Levy et al. 2007) ubiquitin ligases to SKI/SKIL by SMAD2/3. Therefore,the ratio of SMAD2/3 and SKI/SKIL determines the outcome: inhibition of SMAD2/3:SMAD4-mediated transcription or degradation of SKI/SKIL. SKI and SKIL are overexpressed in various cancer types and their oncogenic effect is connected with their ability to inhibit signaling by TGF-beta receptor complex.
SMAD4 can be monoubiquitinated by a nuclear ubiquitin ligase TRIM33 (Ecto, Ectodermin, Tif1-gamma). Monoubiquitination of SMAD4 disrupts SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimers and leads to SMAD4 translocation to the cytosol. In the cytosol, SMAD4 can be deubiquitinated by USP9X (FAM), reversing TRIM33-mediated negative regulation (Dupont et al. 2009).
Phosphorylation of the linker region of SMAD2 and SMAD3 by CDK8 or CDK9 primes SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex for ubiquitination by NEDD4L and SMURF ubiquitin ligases. NEDD4L ubiquitinates SMAD2/3 and targets SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer for degradation (Gao et al. 2009). SMURF2 monoubiquitinates SMAD2/3, leading to disruption of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complexes (Tang et al. 2011).
Transcriptional repressors TGIF1 and TGIF2 bind SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complexes and inhibit SMAD-mediated transcription by recruitment of histone deacetylase HDAC1 to SMAD-binding promoter elements (Wotton et al. 1999, Melhuish et al. 2001).
PARP1 can attach poly ADP-ribosyl chains to SMAD3 and SMAD4 within SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimers. PARylated SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complexes are unable to bind SMAD-binding DNA elements (SBEs) (Lonn et al. 2010).
Phosphorylated SMAD2 and SMAD3 can be dephosphorylated by PPM1A protein phosphatase, leading to dissociation of SMAD2/3 complexes and translocation of unphosphorylated SMAD2/3 to the cytosol (Lin et al. 2006).
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