Search results for RNF168

Showing 21 results out of 33

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Protein (3 results from a total of 3)

Identifier: R-HSA-4551605
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: RNF168: Q8IYW5
Identifier: R-HSA-4551750
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: RNF168: Q8IYW5
Identifier: R-HSA-4551631
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Primary external reference: UniProt: P63165

Reaction (7 results from a total of 8)

Identifier: R-HSA-5683077
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
RNF8 and RNF168 polyubiquitinate KDM4A and KDM4B via ubiquitin lysine K48 cross-linking, leading to dissociation of ubiquitinated KDM4A and KDM4B from H4K20Me2 (Me2-K21-HIST1H4A) and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of KDM4A and KDM4B (Mallette et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-5682863
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The recruitment of RNF168, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is facilitated by the interaction of RNF168 with the UBE2N:UBE2V2 (UBC13:MMS2) complex, which serves as the E2 ubiquitin ligase for both RNF8 and RNF168. In addition, because the two RNF168 ubiquitin interaction motifs (UIMs) are needed for the accumulation of RNF168 at DSBs, the initial ubiquitination of H2AFX (H2AX) histones by RNF8 is likely involved in RNF168 recruitment to DSBs. Inactivating mutations in both RNF168 alleles are responsible for the RIDDLE (radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency, dysmorphic features and learning difficulties) syndrome (Stewart et al. 2009, Doil et al. 2009, Bekker-Jensen et al. 2010, Campbell et al. 2012, Mattiroli et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-5682858
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
RNF8 and RNF168 E3 ubiquitin ligases work in concert with the E2 ubiquitin ligase complex UBE2N:UBE2V2 (UBC13:MMS2) to polyubiquitinate histone H2AFX (H2AX) on lysine residues K14 and K16 (commonly labeled in literature as K13 and K15) via ubiquitin lysine K63-directed cross-linking (Mattiroli et al. 2012). The scenario best supported by experimental evidence is that RNF8 initiates ubiquitination of H2AFX, followed by RNF168 binding to and extending ubiquitin chains ligated by RNF8 (Huen et al. 2007, Mailand et al. 2007, Stewart et al. 2009, Doil et al. 2009, Campbell et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-4551661
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
PIAS4 SUMOylates RNF168 at an unknown lysine residue (Danielsen et al. 2012). Both RNF168 and HERC2 are SUMOylated at double-strand breaks in DNA. SUMOylation of RNF168 is required for its retention at double-strand breaks.
Identifier: R-HSA-5682992
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Histone demethylases KDM4A (JMJD2A) and KDM4B (JMJD2B) bind H4K20Me2 (Me2-K21-HIST1H4A) with a higher affinity than TP53BP1 (53BP1), thereby blocking TP53BP1 recruitment to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Demethylation of HIST1H4A (histone H4) by KDM4A or KDM4B is not involved in the inhibition of TP53BP1 binding (Mallette et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-5693566
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
RNF8- and RNF168-mediated removal of KDM4A and KDM4B from H4K20Me2 (Me2-K21-HIST1H4A) enables TP53BP1 (53BP1) recruitment to WHSC1-methylated histone H4K20Me2 at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) (Pei et al. 2011, Mallette et al. 2012)
Identifier: R-HSA-5682965
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
WHSC1 (MMSET) histone methyltransferase dimethylates histone H4 (HIST1H4A) on lysine residue K21 (commonly labeled in literature as K20), locally increasing the concentration of the H4K20Me2 mark. H4K20Me2 (Me2-K21-HIST1H4A) serves as a binding site for TP53BP1 (53BP1). The recruitment of WHSC1 to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is independent of RNF8 and RNF168, but the catalytic activity of all three proteins is necessary for binding and accumulation of TP53BP1 at DSBs (Pei et al. 2011).

Complex (7 results from a total of 18)

Identifier: R-HSA-4551657
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm

Pathway (4 results from a total of 4)

Identifier: R-HSA-5693565
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Activated ATM phosphorylates a number of proteins involved in the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair (Thompson and Schild 2002, Ciccia and Elledge 2010), thereby triggering and coordinating accumulation of DNA DSB repair proteins in nuclear foci known as ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). While IRIFs include chromatin regions kilobases away from the actual DSB site, this Reactome pathway represents simplified foci and events that happen proximal to the DNA DSB ends. In general, proteins localizing to the nuclear foci in response to ATM signaling are cooperatively retained at the DNA DSB site, forming a positive feedback loop and amplifying DNA damage response (Soutoglou and Misteli 2008).

Activated ATM phosphorylates the NBN (NBS1) subunit of the MRN complex (MRE11A:RAD50:NBN) (Gatei et al. 2000), as well as the nucleosome histone H2AFX (H2AX) on serine residue S139, producing gamma-H2AFX (gamma-H2AX) containing nucleosomes (Rogakou et al. 1998, Burma et al. 2001). H2AFX is phosphorylated on tyrosine 142 (Y142) under basal conditions (Xiao et al. 2009). After ATM-mediated phosphorylation of H2AFX on S139, tyrosine Y142 has to be dephosphorylated by EYA family phosphatases in order for the DNA repair to proceed and to avoid apoptosis induced by DNA DSBs (Cook et al. 2009). Gamma-H2AFX recruits MDC1 to DNA DSBs (Stucki et al. 2005). After ATM phosphorylates MDC1 (Liu et al. 2012), the MRN complex, gamma-H2AFX nucleosomes, and MDC1 serve as a core of the nuclear focus and a platform for the recruitment of other proteins involved in DNA damage signaling and repair (Lukas et al. 2004, Soutoglou and Misteli 2008).

RNF8 ubiquitin ligase binds phosphorylated MDC1 (Kolas et al. 2007) and, in cooperation with HERC2 and RNF168 (Bekker-Jensen et al. 2010, Campbell et al. 2012), ubiquitinates H2AFX (Mailand et al. 2007, Huen et al. 2007, Stewart et al. 2009, Doil et al. 2009) and histone demethylases KDM4A and KDM4B (Mallette et al. 2012).

Ubiquitinated gamma-H2AFX recruits UIMC1 (RAP80), promoting the assembly of the BRCA1-A complex at DNA DSBs. The BRCA1-A complex consists of RAP80, FAM175A (Abraxas), BRCA1:BARD1 heterodimer, BRCC3 (BRCC36), BRE (BRCC45) and BABAM1 (MERIT40, NBA1) (Wang et al. 2007, Wang and Elledge 2007)

Ubiquitin mediated degradation of KDM4A and KDM4B allows TP53BP1 (53BP1) to associate with histone H4 dimethylated on lysine K21 (H4K20Me2 mark) by WHSC1 at DNA DSB sites (Pei et al. 2011).

Once recruited to DNA DSBs, both BRCA1:BARD1 heterodimers and TP53BP1 are phosphorylated by ATM (Cortez et al. 1999, Gatei et al. 2000, Kim et al. 2006, Jowsey et al. 2007), which triggers recruitment and activation of CHEK2 (Chk2, Cds1) (Wang et al. 2002, Wilson and Stern 2008, Melchionna et al. 2000).

Depending on the cell cycle stage, BRCA1 and TP53BP1 competitively promote either homology directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA DSBs. HDR through homologous recombination repair (HRR) or single strand annealing (SSA) is promoted by BRCA1 in association with RBBP8 (CtIP), while NHEJ is promoted by TP53BP1 in association with RIF1 (Escribano-Diaz et al. 2013).

Identifier: R-HSA-5693571
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
The nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is initiated in response to the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation. DNA DSBs are recognized by the MRN complex (MRE11A:RAD50:NBN), leading to ATM activation and ATM-dependent recruitment of a number of DNA damage checkpoint and repair proteins to DNA DSB sites (Lee and Paull 2005). The ATM phosphorylated MRN complex, MDC1 and H2AFX-containing nucleosomes (gamma-H2AX) serve as scaffolds for the formation of nuclear foci known as ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) (Gatei et al. 2000, Paull et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2003, Stucki et al. 2005). Ultimately, both BRCA1:BARD1 heterodimers and TP53BP1 (53BP1) are recruited to IRIF (Wang et al. 2007, Pei et al. 2011, Mallette et al. 2012), which is necessary for ATM-mediated CHEK2 activation (Wang et al. 2002, Wilson et al. 2008). In G1 cells, TP53BP1 promotes NHEJ by recruiting RIF1 and PAX1IP, which displaces BRCA1:BARD1 and associated proteins from the DNA DSB site and prevents resection of DNA DSBs needed for homologous recombination repair (HRR) (Escribano-Diaz et al. 2013, Zimmermann et al. 2013, Callen et al. 2013). TP53BP1 also plays an important role in ATM-mediated phosphorylation of DCLRE1C (ARTEMIS) (Riballo et al. 2004, Wang et al. 2014). Ku70:Ku80 heterodimer (also known as the Ku complex or XRCC5:XRCC6) binds DNA DSB ends, competing away the MRN complex and preventing MRN-mediated resection of DNA DSB ends (Walker et al. 2001, Sun et al. 2012). The catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs, PRKDC) is then recruited to DNA-bound Ku to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. Two DNA-PK complexes, one at each side of the break, bring DNA DSB ends together, joining them in a synaptic complex (Gottlieb 1993, Yoo and Dynan 2000). DNA-PK complex recruits DCLRE1C (ARTEMIS) to DNA DSB ends (Ma et al. 2002). PRKDC-mediated phosphorylation of DCLRE1C, as well as PRKDC autophosphorylation, enables DCLRE1C to trim 3'- and 5'-overhangs at DNA DSBs, preparing them for ligation (Ma et al. 2002, Ma et al. 2005, Niewolik et al. 2006). The binding of inositol phosphate may additionally stimulate the catalytic activity of PRKDC (Hanakahi et al. 2000). Other factors, such as polynucleotide kinase (PNK), TDP1 or TDP2 may remove unligatable damaged nucleotides from 5'- and 3'-ends of the DSB, converting them to ligatable substrates (Inamdar et al. 2002, Gomez-Herreros et al. 2013). DNA ligase 4 (LIG4) in complex with XRCC4 (XRCC4:LIG4) is recruited to ligatable DNA DSB ends together with the XLF (NHEJ1) homodimer and DNA polymerases mu (POLM) and/or lambda (POLL) (McElhinny et al. 2000, Hsu et al. 2002, Malu et al. 2002, Ahnesorg et al. 2006, Mahajan et al. 2002, Lee et al. 2004, Fan and Wu 2004). After POLL and/or POLM fill 1- or 2-nucleotide long single strand gaps at aligned DNA DSB ends, XRCC4:LIG4 performs the ligation of broken DNA strands, thus completing NHEJ. The presence of NHEJ1 homodimer facilitates the ligation step, especially at mismatched DSB ends (Tsai et al. 2007). Depending on other types of DNA damage present at DNA DSBs, NHEJ can result in error-free products, produce dsDNA with microdeletions and/or mismatched bases, or result in translocations (reviewed by Povrik et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-3232142
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Several ubiquitin E3 ligases are regulated by SUMOylation (reviewed in Wilson and Heaton 2008). SUMOylation appears to be necessary for nuclear import of MDM2, the E3 ligase that ubiquitinylates TP53 (p53). SUMOylation of VHL abolishes its ubiquitin ligase activity. HERC2, RNF168, and BRCA1 are ubiquitin ligases that are SUMOylated during DNA damage response and repair.
Identifier: R-HSA-3108214
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
Several factors that participate in DNA damage response and repair are SUMOylated (reviewed in Dou et al. 2011, Bekker-Jensen and Mailand 2011, Ulrich 2012, Psakhye and Jentsch 2012, Bologna and Ferrari 2013, Flotho and Melchior 2013, Jackson and Durocher 2013). SUMOylation can alter enzymatic activity and protein stability or it can serve to recruit additional factors. For example, SUMOylation of Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) causes TDG to lose affinity for its product, an abasic site opposite a G residue, and thus increases turnover of the enzyme. During repair of double-strand breaks SUMO1, SUMO2, SUMO3, and the SUMO E3 ligases PIAS1 and PIAS4 accumulate at double-strand breaks where BRCA1, HERC1, RNF168, MDC1, and TP53BP1 are SUMOylated. SUMOylation of BRCA1 may increase its ubiquitin ligase activity while SUMOylation of MDC1 and HERC2 appears to play a role in recruitment of proteins such as RNF4 and RNF8 to double strand breaks. Similarly SUMOylation of RPA1 (RPA70) recruits RAD51 in the homologous recombination pathway.
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