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PRMT5, recruited to TP53 as part of the ATM-activated complex that includes TTC5, JMY and EP300 (p300), methylates TP53 arginine residues R333, R335 and R337. PRMT5-mediated methylation promotes TP53-stimulated expression of cell cycle arrest genes (Shikama et al. 1999, Demonacos et al. 2001, Demonacos et al. 2004, Adams et al. 2008, Adams et al. 2012). SETD9 (SET9) methylates TP53 at lysine residue K372, resulting in increased stability and activity of TP53 (Chuikov et al. 2004, Couture et al. 2006, Bai et al. 2011).
TP53 transcriptional activity is repressed by SMYD2-mediated methylation of TP53 at lysine residue K370 (Huang et al. 2006). Dimethylation of TP53 at lysine residue K373 by the complex of methyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 also represses TP53-mediated transcription (Huang et al. 2010). The chromatin compaction factor L3MBTL1 binds TP53 monomethylated at lysine K382 by SETD8 (SET8) and, probably through changing local chromatin architecture, represses transcription of TP53 targets (West et al. 2010). The histone lysine-specific demethylase LSD1 interacts with TP53 and represses p53-mediated transcriptional activation (Huang et al. 2007). PRMT1 and CARM1 can also modulate p53 functions in a cooperative manner (An et al. 2004).