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A DNA helicase BRIP1 (also known as BACH1 or FANCJ) is recruited to DNA DSBs through its interaction with BRCA1 (Cantor et al. 2001) and BLM (Suhasini et al. 2011, Suhasini and Brosh 2012). BRIP1 promotes DNA end processing events that stimulate recruitment of the RPA complex and RAD51 (Xie et al. 2012). The interaction with BRCA1 requires BRIP1 to be phosphorylated on serine residue S990 in a cell cycle-dependent manner (Yu et al. 2003). BRIP1 also has to be acetylated on lysine residue K1249 to be functional (Xie et al. 2012).
EXO1 possesses an intrinsic 5'->3' exonuclease activity. The ATPase activity of BLM DNA helicase is not required for EXO1 catalytic activity, but BLM increases the affinity of EXO1 for DNA ends (Nimonkar et al. 2008). WRN can also positively affect EXO1 exonuclease activity, although the mechanism is not clear (Sturzenegger et al. 2014).
The DNA endonuclease DNA2 has to form a complex with either BLM (Nimonkar et al. 2011) or WRN (Sturzenegger et al. 2014) in order to perform a 5'->3' directed resection of DNA DSBs. BLM forms an evolutionarily conserved complex with TOP3A, RMI1 and RMI2, known as the STR complex in yeast (Zhu et al. 2008) and the BTB or BTRR complex in humans. The entire BTRR complex participates in the activation of DNA2-mediated resection of DNA DSBs (Sturzenegger et al. 2014).
While ATR signaling may be detectable in the absence of long-range resection of DNA DSBs by EXO1 or DNA2 (Eid et al. 2010), EXO1 or DNA2 activity may be necessary to achieve biologically meaningful level of ATR activation (Gravel et al. 2008).
BRIP1 (BACH1, FANCJ) is a DNA helicase recruited to DNA DSBs by interaction with BRCA1 (Cantor et al. 2001) and BLM (Suhasini et al. 2011). BRIP1 is necessary for BRCA1-mediated homology-directed repair of DNA DSBs, and BRIP1 loss-of-function mutations are found in familial breast cancer (Cantor et al. 2001, Litman et al. 2005). The exact role of BRIP1 in DNA repair is not completely clear. BRIP1 is needed for the successful formation of RPA foci and, subsequently, RAD51 foci (Xie et al. 2012). The available evidence suggest that it cooperates with BLM in unwinding of DNA DSBs during resection (Suhasini et al. 2011, Sarkies et al. 2012), and may be especially important for unwinding of DNA that contains oxidative damage (Suhasini et al. 2009).
RAD52 is the key mediator of SSA. Activated ATM phosphorylates and activates ABL1, and activated ABL1 subsequently phosphorylates pre-formed RAD52 heptameric rings, increasing their affinity for ssDNA (Honda et al. 2011). Phosphorylated RAD52 binds phosphorylated RPA heterotrimers on 3'-ssDNA overhangs at resected DNA DSBs. RAD52 also binds RAD51 and prevents formation of invasive RAD51 nucleofilaments involved in HRR (Chen et al. 1999, Van Dyck et al. 1999, Parsons et al. 2000, Jackson et al. 2002, Singleton et al. 2002).
RAD52 promotes annealing of two 3'-ssDNA overhangs when highly homologous directed repeats are present in both 3'-ssDNA overhangs. Nonhomologous regions lying 3' to the annealed repeats are displaced as 3'-flaps (Parsons et al. 2000, Van Dyck et al. 2001, Singleton et al. 2002, Stark et al. 2004, Mansour et al. 2008). The endonuclease complex composed of ERCC1 and ERCC4 (XPF) is subsequently recruited to SSA sites through direct interaction between RAD52 and ERCC4, leading to cleavage of 3' flaps (Motycka et al. 2004, Al-Minawi et al. 2008). The identity of a DNA ligase that closes the remaining single strand nicks (SSBs) to complete SSA-mediated repair is not known.
SSA results in deletion of one of the annealed repeats and the intervening DNA sequence between the two annealed repeats and is thus mutagenic.