TICAM1 (or TRIF) is known to be an essential and exclusive adaptor used by TLR3 ; all the poly(I:C)-induced pathways leading to NFkB and IRF3 activation were abolished in TRIF–/– mice (Yamamoto et al. 2003).
Human TICAM1 consists of an N-terminal region (1–234), a TIR domain (235–500), and a C-terminal region (501–680).
The N-terminal region of TICAM1 harbors TRAF (TNF receptor associated factor) family proteins and forms complexes containing IRF-3 and/or NFkB -activating kinases.
The C-terminal region of TICAM1 can recruit receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP-1), and this event is followed by the activation of IKK complex .
Chicken TICAM1 encodes a 735 amino-acid protein that shares 31% sequence identity with its human and mouse orthologs.