Asymmetric localization of PCP proteins

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Homo sapiens
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One of the hallmarks of the Planar Cell Polarity pathway is the asymmetric distribution of proteins on opposite membranes of a single cell. In Drosophila, Stbm and Pk (homologues to the human VANGL1/2 and PRICKLE1/2/3) colocalize opposite Fz, Dsh and Dgo (FZD, DVL, and ANKRD6, respectively). The two complexes antagonize each other, with Fz:Dsh:Dgo acting to promote signaling downstream of Dsh, while the Stbm:Pk complex restricts this signaling (reviewed in Seifert and Mlodzik, 2007). Asymmetric localization of some PCP proteins is also seen in vertebrates (Montcouquiol et al, 2003, 2006; Wang et al, 2006, Narimatsu et al, 2009) although the patterns of localization differ from that of flies. The details of how localization is established and how the asymmetrical distribution of proteins is translated into gross morphological processes remain to be fully elucidated.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
16687519 Asymmetric localization of Vangl2 and Fz3 indicate novel mechanisms for planar cell polarity in mammals

Forge, A, Dickman, JD, Copeland, NG, Kelley, MW, Wenthold, RJ, Warchol, ME, Kach, J, Huss, D, Jenkins, NA, Sans, N, Bogani, D, Montcouquiol, M, Rachel, RA, Murdoch, J

J. Neurosci. 2006
16495441 The role of Frizzled3 and Frizzled6 in neural tube closure and in the planar polarity of inner-ear sensory hair cells

Guo, N, Wang, Y, Nathans, J

J. Neurosci. 2006
17230199 Frizzled/PCP signalling: a conserved mechanism regulating cell polarity and directed motility

Seifert, JR, Mlodzik, M

Nat Rev Genet 2007
19379695 Regulation of planar cell polarity by Smurf ubiquitin ligases

Luga, V, Wrana, JL, Miller, B, Roncari, L, Sakuma, R, Bose, R, Ching, P, Attisano, L, Zhang, L, Pye, M, Narimatsu, M

Cell 2009
12724779 Identification of Vangl2 and Scrb1 as planar polarity genes in mammals

Montcouquiol, M, Copeland, NG, Kelley, MW, Lanford, PJ, Rachel, RA, Jenkins, NA

Nature 2003
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