Assembly of the anterograde IFT train

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Reaction [binding]
Homo sapiens
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IFT particles were first characterized in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, where they were observed by differential interference contrast microscopy as electron-dense granules that move along doublet microtubules of the ciliary axoneme (Kozminski et al, 1993; Kozminski et al, 1995; reviewed in Pedersen et al, 2008). More recent ultrastructural analysis of Chlamydomonas flagella confirms the presence of two distinct types of IFT trains, a longer, less electron-opaque anterograde train and shorter, more opaque retrograde trains. Both the anterograde and retrograde trains are associated with the outer microtubule doublets and with the inner surface of the flagellar membrane (Pigino et al, 2009). Isolation and characterization of IFT particles revealed that they consist of 2 biochemically distinct subcomplexes, IFT A and IFT B that are widely conserved in ciliated organisms (Piperno et al, 1997; Cole et al, 1998; reviewed in Sung and Leroux, 2013). Anterograde traffic is driven by kinesin-2 type motors in an ATP-dependent manner. Evidence from C. elegans suggests distinct and sequential roles for the canonical heterotrimeric kinesin-2 motor and the alternate homodimeric kinesin-2, OSM-3 (homologue of human KIF17) in mediating anterograde transport, but this has not been demonstrated in human cells where the canonical kinesin-2 motor predominates (Evans et al, 2006; Snow et al, 2004; Ou et al, 2005). Human KIF17 appears to be required in some cell types for cilia formation, and plays a role in the import of some ciliary cargo (Jenkins et al, 2006; Insinna et al, 2008; Insinna et al, 2009; Dishinger et al, 2010; reviewed in Verhey et al, 2011). Assembly of the anterograde IFT trains at the base of the cilium may be facilitated by the BBSome complex, which has also been shown to display IFT-like movement along the axoneme; however, the BBSome is highly sub-stoichiometric with respect to the IFT complex, so this notion requires more substantiation (Ou et al, 2005; Wei et al, 2012; Blacque et al, 2004; Nachury et al, 2007; Lechtreck et al, 2009; reviewed in Sung and Leroux, 2013). Studies in C. elegans also suggest a role for ARL13B and ARL3 in regulating the stability of the anterograde IFT train (Li et al, 2010).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19384852 Different roles for KIF17 and kinesin II in photoreceptor development and maintenance

Sedmak, T, Humby, M, Insinna, C, Wolfrum, U, Besharse, JC

Dev. Dyn. 2009
16492809 Functional modulation of IFT kinesins extends the sensory repertoire of ciliated neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

Snow, JJ, Gunnarson, AL, McDonald, KL, Stahlberg, H, Ou, G, Evans, JE, Scholey, JM

J. Cell Biol. 2006
16049494 Functional coordination of intraflagellar transport motors

Snow, JJ, Leroux, MR, Blacque, OE, Ou, G, Scholey, JM

Nature 2005
22922713 The BBSome controls IFT assembly and turnaround in cilia

Ling, K, Wei, Q, Hu, J, Zhang, Q, Li, Y, Zhang, Y

Nat. Cell Biol. 2012
16782012 Ciliary targeting of olfactory CNG channels requires the CNGB1b subunit and the kinesin-2 motor protein, KIF17

Zhang, L, Hurd, TW, Martens, JR, Brown, RL, Jenkins, PM, Verhey, KJ, McEwen, DP, Margolis, B

Curr. Biol. 2006
17574030 A core complex of BBS proteins cooperates with the GTPase Rab8 to promote ciliary membrane biogenesis

Westlake, CJ, Loktev, AV, Zhang, Q, Sheffield, VC, Scheller, RH, Slusarski, DC, Nachury, MV, Jackson, PK, Peränen, J, Bazan, JF, Merdes, A

Cell 2007
8522608 The Chlamydomonas kinesin-like protein FLA10 is involved in motility associated with the flagellar membrane

Kozminski, KG, Beech, PL, Rosenbaum, JL

J. Cell Biol. 1995
18304522 The homodimeric kinesin, Kif17, is essential for vertebrate photoreceptor sensory outer segment development

Pathak, N, Perkins, B, Insinna, C, Drummond, I, Besharse, JC

Dev. Biol. 2008
9585417 Chlamydomonas kinesin-II-dependent intraflagellar transport (IFT): IFT particles contain proteins required for ciliary assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons

Himelblau, AL, Fuster, JC, Beech, PL, Cole, DG, Diener, DR, Rosenbaum, JL

J. Cell Biol. 1998
20526328 Ciliary entry of the kinesin-2 motor KIF17 is regulated by importin-beta2 and RanGTP

Hurd, TW, Kee, HL, Martens, JR, Truong, YN, Hammond, JW, Jenkins, PM, Verhey, KJ, Dishinger, JF, Fan, S, Margolis, B

Nat. Cell Biol. 2010
15489852 Two anterograde intraflagellar transport motors cooperate to build sensory cilia on C. elegans neurons

Snow, JJ, Gunnarson, AL, Ou, G, Walker, MR, Zhou, HM, Scholey, JM, Brust-Mascher, I

Nat. Cell Biol. 2004
15231740 Loss of C. elegans BBS-7 and BBS-8 protein function results in cilia defects and compromised intraflagellar transport

Leroux, MR, McCarthy, J, Plasterk, RH, Quarmby, LM, Reardon, MJ, Mah, AK, Audeh, M, Mahjoub, MR, Badano, JL, Wicks, SR, Ansley, SJ, Davidson, WS, Johnsen, RC, Beales, PL, Katsanis, N, Baillie, DL, Li, C, Blacque, OE

Genes Dev. 2004
19805633 Electron-tomographic analysis of intraflagellar transport particle trains in situ

Pigino, G, Lanzavecchia, S, Lupetti, P, Geimer, S, Diener, DR, Paccagnini, E, Rosenbaum, JL, Cantele, F

J. Cell Biol. 2009
21936775 Kinesin motors and primary cilia

Kee, HL, Verhey, KJ, Dishinger, J

Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2011
19147001 Intraflagellar transport (IFT) role in ciliary assembly, resorption and signalling

Pedersen, LB, Rosenbaum, JL

Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 2008
9114011 Transport of a novel complex in the cytoplasmic matrix of Chlamydomonas flagella

Piperno, G, Mead, K

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997
24296415 The roles of evolutionarily conserved functional modules in cilia-related trafficking

Sung, CH, Leroux, MR

Nat. Cell Biol. 2013
8516294 A motility in the eukaryotic flagellum unrelated to flagellar beating

Forscher, P, Kozminski, KG, Johnson, KA, Rosenbaum, JL

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993
20530210 The small GTPases ARL-13 and ARL-3 coordinate intraflagellar transport and ciliogenesis

Ling, K, Wei, Q, Hu, J, Li, Y, Zhang, Y

J. Cell Biol. 2010
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