The branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, are all essential amino acids (i.e., ones required in the diet). They are major constituents of muscle protein. The breakdown of these amino acids starts with two common steps catalyzed by enzymes that act on all three amino acids: reversible transamination by branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, and irreversible oxidative decarboxylation by the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Isovaleryl-CoA is produced from leucine by these two reactions, alpha-methylbutyryl-CoA from isoleucine, and isobutyryl-CoA from valine. These acyl-CoA's undergo dehydrogenation, catalyzed by three different but related enzymes, and the breakdown pathways then diverge. Leucine is ultimately converted to acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate; isoleucine to acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA; and valine to succinyl-CoA. Under fasting conditions, substantial amounts of all three amino acids are generated by protein breakdown. In muscle, the final products of leucine, isoleucine, and valine catabolism can be fully oxidized via the citric acid cycle; in liver they can be directed toward the synthesis of ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA) and glucose (succinyl-CoA) (Neinast et al. 2019).