Endocytosis of SARS-CoV-2 Virion

Stable Identifier
Reaction [dissociation]
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
SVG |   | PPTX  | SBGN
Click the image above or here to open this reaction in the Pathway Browser
The layout of this reaction may differ from that in the pathway view due to the constraints in pathway layout

This COVID-19 pathway has been created by a combination of computational inference from SARS-CoV-1 data (https://reactome.org/documentation/inferred-events) and manual curation, as described in the summation for the overall SARS-CoV-2 infection pathway.

Based on SARS-CoV-1 experiments, SARS-CoV-2 virions attached to the host cell surface via a complex involving viral spike (S) protein and host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are inferred to undergo endocytosis. In the case of SARS-CoV-1, studies with pseudoviruses have established that S protein is necessary and sufficient for mediating viral attachment and entry. Inhibition of this SARS-CoV-1 S protein-mediated transduction by two different classes of lysosomotropic agents in multiple cell lines strongly suggests that acidification of endosomes is needed for viral entry (Hofmann et al. 2004; Simmons et al. 2004; Yang et al. 2004). The roles of S protein in viral binding to the host cell membrane and fusion of viral and host cell membranes and thus the central role of S protein in determining the host range and tissue tropisms of the virus are reviewed by Belouzard et al. (2012).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
15163706 S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus mediates entry into hepatoma cell lines and is targeted by neutralizing antibodies in infected patients

Niedrig, M, Krumbiegel, M, Pöhlmann, S, Gramberg, T, Kuate, S, Marzi, A, Uberla, K, Geier, M, Hattermann, K, Hofmann, H

J. Virol. 2004
15140961 pH-dependent entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is mediated by the spike glycoprotein and enhanced by dendritic cell transfer through DC-SIGN

Leung, K, Kong, WP, Huang, Y, Subbarao, K, Nabel, GJ, Yang, ZY, Ganesh, L, Schwartz, O

J. Virol. 2004
22816037 Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein

Licitra, BN, Belouzard, S, Millet, JK, Whittaker, GR

Viruses 2012
15010527 Characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike glycoprotein-mediated viral entry

Bates, P, Piefer, AJ, Reeves, JD, Simmons, G, Amberg, SM, Rennekamp, AJ

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004
Inferred From
Name Identifier Synonyms
COVID-19 DOID:0080600 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus infection, 2019-nCoV infection, Wuhan coronavirus infection
Cite Us!