Search results for DNMT1

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Reaction (8 results from a total of 8)

Identifier: R-HSA-5334160
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
As inferred from the mouse homolog, UHRF1 associates with hemimethylated DNA and histone H3 tails methylated at lysine-9. UHRF1 recruits and tethers DNMT1 (Bostick et al. 2007). The association of UHRF1 with DNMT1 occurs preferentially during S-phase when DNA is hemimethylated as the newly replicated strand remains transiently unmethylated (Zhang et al. 2011, Hervouet et al. 2012). DNMT1 also forms complexes with transcription factors such as TP53 (p53) and YY1 at other times during the cell cycle (Hervouet et al. 2012).
Identifier: R-HSA-4655431
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
DNMT1 is SUMOyated at several unknown lysine residues with SUMO1 (Lee et al. 2009). SUMOylation increases the DNA methyltransferase activity of DNMT1.
Identifier: R-HSA-5334151
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
DNMT1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 5-position of the cytosine ring of cytosine residues in DNA. Purified human DNMT1 shows a 7 to 21-fold preference for hemimethylated CG motifs in DNA compared to unmethylated CG motifs (Pradhan et al. 1999) thus DNMT1 tends to maintain existing methylation through DNA replication. The binding of the CXXC motif of DNMT1 to cytosine in symmetrically unmethylated CG dinucleotides prevents access of cytosine to the active site and thereby prevents de novo methylation (Song et al. 2011). UHRF1 binds hemimethylated DNA and histone H3 tails methylated at lysine-9 and recruits DNMT1 to methylate hemimethylated DNA (Bostick et al. 2007, reviewed in Ooi and Bestor 2008). Interaction of UHRF1 with DNMT1 increases the methylation activity of DNMT1 about 5-fold (Bashtrykov et al. 2014).
Identifier: R-HSA-212269
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) associate with EZH2 of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and methylate the 5 position of the cytosine ring in DNA (Vire et al. 2006). The histone methyltransferase activity of EZH2 also trimethylates lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). The promoters of the MYT, WNT1, KCNA1, and CNR1 genes are methylated on cytosine by the DNMT:PRC2 complex however not all loci that have H3K27me3 by PRC2 also have cytosine methylation (Vire et al. 2006, Brinkman et al. 2012). DNA methylation and H3K27me3 appear to be mutually exclusive in CpG islands but are compatible throughout most of the rest of the genome (Brinkman et al. 2012). In mouse, DNA methylation and H3K27me3 appear to be antagonistic at most loci: loss of DNA methylation causes increased H3K27me3 while loss of PRC2 has little effect on DNA methylation (Hagarman et al. 2013). By competing with DNMT3a,b for association with PRC2, DNMT3L may antagonize DNA methylation at sites bound by PRC2 (Neri et al. 2013).
Identifier: R-HSA-5227490
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
From research with human cells (Majumder et al. 2006, Espada et al. 2007) and inferences from mouse cell models, cytosine residues in the main promoter of silenced rRNA gene copiess are methylated by DNMT1 and DNMT3B. DNMT3B directly binds a triple helix formed by pRNA and the main promoter of rDNA. The methylated cytosines prevent binding of the UBF transcription factor, thus preventing transcription of silenced rRNA gene copies. Histone deacetylation is required for DNA methylation.
Identifier: R-HSA-6782419
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
TRDMT1 (DNMT2) transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 5 position of cytidine-38 of tRNA(Asp) (Goll et al. 2006, Jurkowski et al. 2008, Jurkowski et al. 2012). TRDMT1 uses a similar mechanism to DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B) (Jurkowski et al. 2008).
Identifier: R-HSA-212222
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
In tumor cells the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 associates with a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) via the N-terminal region of EZH2 (Vire et al. 2006). DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b can each bind EZH2 though only one is bound at any time. As inferred from mouse (Rush et al. 2009), EZH2 tethered to a locus is able to recruit Dnmt3a but additional factors may be required to trigger de novo DNA methylation. It is unknown if the DNMT is recruited only after PRC2 has been targeted to a locus.
Identifier: R-HSA-427409
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: nucleoplasm
As inferred from mouse cell models, the Nucleolar Remodeling Complex (NoRC) comprises TIP5 (BAZ2A) and the chromatin remodeller SNF2H (SMARCA5). The TAM domain of TIP5 (BAZ2A) binds promoter-associated RNA (pRNA) transcribed from the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (Anosova et al. 2015). Binding is not sequence-specific but depends on the secondary structure of the RNA. The pRNA bound by TIP5 is required to direct the complex to the main promoter of the rRNA gene possibly by triple helix formation between pRNA and the rDNA. The PHD domain of TIP5 binds histone H4 acetylated at lysine-16. Transcription Termination Factor-I (TTF-I) binds to a promoter-proximal terminator (T0 site) in the rDNA and interacts with the TIP5 subunit of NoRC. NoRC also interacts with the SIN3-HDAC complex, HDAC1, HDAC2, DNMT1, and DNMT3B. DNMT3B interacts with a triple helix formed by pRNA and the rDNA. HDAC1, DNMT1, and DNMT3B have been shown to be required for proper DNA methylation of silenced rRNA gene copies, although the catalytic activity of DNMT3B was not required (Majumder et al. 2006).
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