Search results for MST1

Showing 19 results out of 45

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Protein (5 results from a total of 11)

Identifier: R-HSA-6800227
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
Primary external reference: UniProt: MST1: P26927
Identifier: R-HSA-6800207
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
Primary external reference: UniProt: P26927
Identifier: R-HSA-6800230
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
Primary external reference: UniProt: P26927
Identifier: R-HSA-6800303
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q04912
Identifier: R-HSA-6800308
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Primary external reference: UniProt: MST1R: Q04912

Pathway (2 results from a total of 2)

Identifier: R-HSA-8852405
Species: Homo sapiens
Inflammatory mediators such as growth factors produced by macrophages play an important role in the inflammatory response occurring during bacterial infection, tissue injury and immune responses. Many growth factors and their receptor-type protein tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a critical role in inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodelling. The growth factor hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (MST1, also known as macrophage-stimulating protein, MSP) binds to a specific receptor, macrophage-stimulating protein receptor (MST1R, also known as RON, recepteur d'origine nantais). MST1 belongs to the kringle protein family, which includes HGF and plasminogen. It is produced by the liver and circulates in the blood as a biologically-inactive single chain precursor (pro-MST1). Proteolytic cleavage of pro-MST1 into the biologically-active MST1 dimer is necessary for receptor binding. Cleavage occurs during blood coagulation and at inflammatory sites, the resultant MST1 dimer then binds MST1R receptors on local macrophages. MST1R is ubiquitously expressed but mainly in epithelial cells.

MST1 binding to MST1R promotes receptor homodimerisation which in turn allows autophosphorylation of two tyrosine residues within the catalytic site which regulates kinase activity and allows phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal binding site of the receptor. The docking site is essential for downstream signaling through direct and indirect binding of SH2 domain-containing adaptor proteins such as GRB2, PI3K, and SRC. MST1/MST1R signaling plays a dual role in regulating inflammation; initially stimulating chemotaxis and phagocytosis (macrophage activation) and then exerts broad inhibitory effects on macrophages, limiting the extent of inflammtory responses (Wang et al. 2002). MST1R is upregulated in many epithelial cancers where it is thought to play a role in the progression of these types of cancer (Kretschmann et al. 2010).
Identifier: R-HSA-2028269
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Human Hippo signaling is a network of reactions that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, centered on a three-step kinase cascade. The cascade was discovered by analysis of Drosophila mutations that lead to tissue overgrowth, and human homologues of its components have since been identified and characterized at a molecular level. Data from studies of mice carrying knockout mutant alleles of the genes as well as from studies of somatic mutations in these genes in human tumors are consistent with the conclusion that in mammals, as in flies, the Hippo cascade is required for normal regulation of cell proliferation and defects in the pathway are associated with cell overgrowth and tumorigenesis (Oh and Irvine 2010; Pan 2010; Zhao et al. 2010). This group of reactions is also notable for its abundance of protein:protein interactions mediated by WW domains and PPxY sequence motifs (Sudol and Harvey 2010).

There are two human homologues of each of the three Drosophila kinases, whose functions are well conserved: expression of human proteins rescues fly mutants. The two members of each pair of human homologues have biochemically indistinguishable functions. Autophosphorylated STK3 (MST2) and STK4 (MST1) (homologues of Drosophila Hippo) catalyze the phosphorylation and activation of LATS1 and LATS2 (homologues of Drosophila Warts) and of the accessory proteins MOB1A and MOB1B (homologues of Drosophila Mats). LATS1 and LATS2 in turn catalyze the phosphorylation of the transcriptional co-activators YAP1 and WWTR1 (TAZ) (homologues of Drosophila Yorkie).

In their unphosphorylated states, YAP1 and WWTR1 freely enter the nucleus and function as transcriptional co-activators. In their phosphorylated states, however, YAP1 and WWTR1 are instead bound by 14-3-3 proteins, YWHAB and YWHAE respectively, and sequestered in the cytosol.

Several accessory proteins are required for the three-step kinase cascade to function. STK3 (MST2) and STK4 (MST1) each form a complex with SAV1 (homologue of Drosophila Salvador), and LATS1 and LATS2 form complexes with MOB1A and MOB1B (homologues of Drosophila Mats).

In Drosophila a complex of three proteins, Kibra, Expanded, and Merlin, can trigger the Hippo cascade. A human homologue of Kibra, WWC1, has been identified and indirect evidence suggests that it can regulate the human Hippo pathway (Xiao et al. 2011). A molecular mechanism for this interaction has not yet been worked out and the molecular steps that trigger the Hippo kinase cascade in humans are unknown.

Four additional processes related to human Hippo signaling, although incompletely characterized, have been described in sufficient detail to allow their annotation. All are of physiological interest as they are likely to be parts of mechanisms by which Hippo signaling is modulated or functionally linked to other signaling processes. First, the caspase 3 protease cleaves STK3 (MST2) and STK4 (MST1), releasing inhibitory carboxyterminal domains in each case, leading to increased kinase activity and YAP1 / TAZ phosphorylation (Lee et al. 2001). Second, cytosolic AMOT (angiomotin) proteins can bind YAP1 and WWTR1 (TAZ) in their unphosphorylated states, a process that may provide a Hippo-independent mechanism to down-regulate the activities of these proteins (Chan et al. 2011). Third, WWTR1 (TAZ) and YAP1 bind ZO-1 and 2 proteins (Remue et al. 2010; Oka et al. 2010). Fourth, phosphorylated WWTR1 (TAZ) binds and sequesters DVL2, providing a molecular link between Hippo and Wnt signaling (Varelas et al. 2010).

Complex (5 results from a total of 14)

Identifier: R-HSA-6800213
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region
Identifier: R-HSA-6800284
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-8852534
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-8852547
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Identifier: R-HSA-6800307
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane

Reaction (5 results from a total of 16)

Identifier: R-HSA-6800315
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane, extracellular region
The receptor tyrosine kinase macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R, aka recepteur d'origine nantais, RON) is the cell surface receptor for macrophage stimulating protein 1 (MST1, aka MSP) (Wang et al. 1997). Like their ligands, MST1R (and MET) is a cleaved disulfide-linked heterodimer, the mature receptor consisting of alpha and beta chains. The MST1/MST1R pathway is involved in several important biological processes, including macrophage activity, wound healing, and epithelial cell behaviour (Kretschmann et al. 2010). MST1 binding to MST1R promotes receptor dimerisation followed by receptor autophosphorylation.
Identifier: R-HSA-6800198
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region, plasma membrane
Hepsin (HPN, aka TMPRSS1) is a cell surface-expressed chymotrypsin-like serine protease and a member of the family of type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP). The HPN zymogen is activated autocatalytically by cleavage at Arg162–Ile163, forming a heterodimeric enzyme (Tsuji et al. 1991, Torres-Rosado et al. 1993). HPN plays an essential role in cell growth and maintenance of cell morphology and is highly upregulated in prostate cancer and promotes tumor progression and metastasis. Located on the cell surface, HPN can activate fibrinolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteases and latent forms of growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (MST1, aka macrophage stimulatory protein, MSP). MST1 is a plasminogen-related growth factor and ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase (MST1R, RON). The MST1/MST1R (MSP/RON) signaling system promotes wound healing and invasive tumor growth and suppresses proinflammatory immune response. For MST1 to bind MST1R, the inactive single-chain form (pro-MST1) must be cleaved into the disulfide-linked alpha-beta heterodimer by HPN (Ganesan et al. 2011). The Kunitz-type protease inhibitors 1 and 2 (SPINT1 and 2, aka HAI1 and 2) are inhibitors of HPN activity (Kirchhofer et al. 2005).

The non-synonymous coding variant in MST1 (R689C) has been associated with genetic susceptibility to both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The R689C variant reduces the amount of circulating MST1 thereby reducing MST1R activity and down-regulation of the MST1/MST1R signaling pathway (McGovern et al. 2010, Gorlatova et al. 2011, Kauder et al. 2013).
Identifier: R-HSA-8852522
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: extracellular region, plasma membrane
The receptor tyrosine kinase macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R, aka recepteur d'origine nantais, RON) is the cell surface receptor for macrophage stimulating protein 1 (MST1, aka MSP). Once ligand binding takes place, MST1R can undergo homodimerisation (Miller & Leonard 1998, Chao et al. 2014).
Identifier: R-HSA-2028629
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Cytosolic MOB1A and MOB1B are phosphorylated by phospho-STK4 (p-MST1). Phosphorylated (active) STK4 (p-MST1) and SAV1 are known to form a complex and that complex is annotated as the catalyst of this reaction. Threonine residues 12 and 35 have been experimentally identifed as the targets of MOB1A phosphorylation; the homologous residues of MOB1B are inferred likewise to be targets (Praskova et al. 2008).
Identifier: R-HSA-2028692
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: cytosol
Cytosolic caspase 3 cleaves p-STK4 (p-MST1) to yield an active animo-terminal fragment (p-STK4/N) and a carboxy-terminal fragment (p-STK4/C) (Graves et al. 1998; Lee et al. 2001). The association of p-STK4 (p-MST1) with other proteins at the time of its cleavage by caspase has not been studied experimentally. Here, it is inferred to be dimerized and in a complex with SAV1 because that is the form of the molecule that becomes phosphorylated and phosphorylation appears normally to precede caspase cleavage. The effect of the cleavage is to increase the kinase activity of p-STK4 (p-MST1).

Interactor (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: Q13043-2
Species: Homo sapiens
Primary external reference: UniProt: Q13043-2

Icon (1 results from a total of 1)

Species: Homo sapiens
Curator: Karen Rothfels
Designer: Cristoffer Sevilla
MST1R icon
Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor
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