Search results for TREM1

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Protein (1 results from a total of 1)

Identifier: R-HSA-197654
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
Primary external reference: UniProt: TREM1: Q9NP99

Reaction (3 results from a total of 3)

Identifier: R-HSA-210292
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
TREM proteins (triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells) are a family of cell surface receptors involved in innate immune responses. They are expressed in myeloid cells and have both positive and negative functions in regulating myeloid cell activation and differentiation. Humans have two members, TREM1 and TREM2. TREM1 is considered an amplifier of the immune response, while TREM2 is believed to be a negative regulator of inflammatory responses (Sharif & Knaap 2008). TREM proteins consist of a single extracellular V-type Ig-like domain, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail lacking any signalling motifs (Kelker et al. 2004). Both receptors associate with DAP12 for signalling.
The ligand for TREM1 is unknown. TREM1 associates with DAP12 dimer. This interaction is mediated by aspartic acid and adjacent threonine residues in the DAP12 dimer that interface with lysine residues in the TREM1 transmembrane region. TREM1 engagement triggers the production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as IL-8 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophils and IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF in monocytes (Tessarz & Cerwenka 2008, Bouchon et al. 2000).
Identifier: R-HSA-203156
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) plays an important role in the innate immune response related to severe infections and sepsis. Although the identity and occurrence of the natural TREM-1 ligands are so far unknown, the presence of a ligand for TREM-1 on human platelets has been established. It has been suggested that TREM1 recognizes soluble proteins or cell-surface proteins which are upregulated as a result of inflammation and/or tissue damage and also bacterial LPS (Tessarz & Cerwenka 2008).
Identifier: R-HSA-210300
Species: Homo sapiens
Compartment: plasma membrane
TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein) is expressed on the cell membrane of a subset of myeloid cells - namely, immature dendritic cells, osteoclasts, tissue macrophages, and microglia. Like TREM1 the ligand for TREM2 is unknown. TREM2 signals through DAP12, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Sharif & Knapp. 2008). It recognises anionic lipopolysacharides in the cell wall of bacteria and triggers the phagocytic uptake of bacteria and the release of reactive oxygen species (Neumann & Daly 2013). TREM2 on immature dendritic cells triggers upregulation of molecules involved in T cell co-stimulation such as CD86, CD40 and MHC class II, as well as up-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 (Bouchon et al. 2001). In macrophages TREM2 is a negative regulator of inflammatory responses (Hamerman et al. 2006, Turnbull et al. 2006). From genome wide association studies, a TREM2 variant (encoding a substitution of arginine by histidine at residue 47 [R47H]) has been reported to be implicated in late-onset Alzheumer's disease (Neumann & Daly 2013).
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